영국의 북아일랜드와 국경을 접하며, 동쪽은 아일랜드 해, 서쪽은 대서양과 접하고 있다. 아일랜드라는 말은 지리적인 의미(아일랜드 섬)와 혼동되는 경우가 많기 때문에, 이 문제를 피하기 위하여 아일랜드 공화국(아일랜드어: Poblacht na hÉireann, 영어: Republic of Ireland)이라고 적기도 한다.
프랑스 갈루아족이 기원전 5세기 경에 아일랜드로 건너와 토종 민족 게일족과 함께 자리를 잡았다. 다음 붉은 머리 켈트족이 건너왔다. 5세기에 성 패트릭이 아일랜드에 가톨릭교를 전파했다. 성 패트릭 축일은 아일랜드 최대의 축일이다.
그러나 8세기부터 11세기 초에 걸쳐 바이킹족이 침략했다. 오랜 기간 바이킹족의 공격에 시달린 후 그들의 세력이 약해질 무렵인 1172년 또다시 헨리 2세의 잉글랜드군이 침략해왔다. 수도인 더블린이 함락되면서 아일랜드는 잉글랜드의 식민지가 되었다. 그러나 켈트족은 끈질기게 저항하여 잉글랜드세력을 서서히 몰아냈다.
1534년, 헨리 8세가 대대적인 아일랜드 침략을 감행했다. 이 침략으로 인해 아일랜드는 1937년 정식 독립될 때까지 약 400년을 잉글랜드의 식민지 통치를 받았다. 헨리 2세의 침략으로부터 보면 아일랜드는 약 800년간을 독립을 위해 싸운, 말 그대로 저항의 역사라고 할 수 있다.
북아일랜드의 역사는 종교갈등의 역사이기도 하다. 북아일랜드 종교갈등은 18세기 스코틀랜드 장로교인들이 17세기 올리버 크롬웰의 침공으로 영국의 식민지가 된 아일랜드에 이주하면서 시작되었다. 현재 북아일랜드의얼스터에 이주온 장로교인들은 가톨릭교도들을 밀어내고, 인구의 대부분을 차지했으며, 이들의 후손들은 지금도 정치, 사회, 문화 모든 영역에서 기득권을 갖고 있다. 따라서 아일랜드 사람들은 수백년이나 영국에서 온 개신교인들에게 차별과 억압을 받았고, 이들의 불만은 부활절 봉기(1916년), 아일랜드 공화국군 결성 등의 무장투쟁으로 폭발했다. 아일랜드 사람들이 가톨릭을 신봉함으로서 아일랜드 민족의 정체성을 확립하고자 한 것도 영국 개신교인들의 아일랜드 사람 지배에 기인한다. 하지만 지주계급들은 가톨릭에서 장로교로 교파를 바꿈으로써 그들의 재산을 지키고자 하였다.
1800년대 중반에 대기근이 닥쳐 1100여만 명이었던 아일랜드의 인구는 절반으로 떨어졌고, 많은 사람들이 미국을 포함한 해외로 이주했다. 아일랜드의 민요들이 슬픈 이유도 영국의 식민통치와 대기근이라는 비극적인 아일랜드 역사에 기인한 것이다.
1916년 부활절 봉기와 영국-아일랜드 전쟁을 거쳐 1921년 영국-아일랜드 조약을 체결함으로써 아일랜드의 32개주 중 남부 26개주가 아일랜드 자유국으로 독립했다. 1년 후 아일랜드 내전이 일어났다. 1949년에 아일랜드는 영국 연방에서 탈퇴한 후 아일랜드 공화국으로 완전독립하였다.A Short History of Ireland (1/7)
A Short History of Ireland (2/7)
A Short History of Ireland (3/7)
아일랜드도 '투기등급'으로 강등
아일랜드 의 신용등급이 투기등급으로 떨어지며 유럽 재정불안의 위기감이 PIGS 국가에 전방위로 퍼지는 양상이다.
국제 신용평가사 무디스는 12일(현지시각) 아일랜드의 신용등급을 기존 투자등급이었던 'Baa3'에서 투자부적격등급인 'Ba1'으로 한 단계 내렸다. Ba1은 인도네시아 와 같은 등급이다. 무디스는 신용등급 전망을 '부정적(negative)'으로 유지, 등급 추가 강등의 여지를 남겼다. 이로써 아일랜드는 그리스 · 포르투갈 에 이어 무디스가 투자부적격등급을 부여한 유로존 내 세 번째 국가가 됐다.
아일랜드 등급 하향 소식이 전해지며 영국 (-1.0%)· 프랑스 (-0.8%)· 독일 (-0.8%) 등 유럽 주요 증시들이 하락했다. 상승세를 이어가던 미국 다우지수 역시 장 막판 아일랜드 소식에 0.5% 떨어지며 3일째 하락했다.
무디스는 "신용등급을 하향 조정한 것은 아일랜드에 대한 유럽연합(EU)과 국제통화기금(IMF)의 추가 지원이 필요할 수 있다는 가능성이 제기된 데 따른 것"이라며 "추가 지원의 조건으로 아일랜드의 채권을 보유한 은행 등 민간 채권자들의 손실 분담이 요구될 것"이라고 밝혔다.
작년 11월 EU와 IMF는 아일랜드에 850억유로를 구제금융으로 지원하기로 결정했고, 6월 말 현재 72억3000만유로가 집행된 상태다. IMF 등의 추가 지원을 받기 위해선 민간 투자자들 역시 어느 정도 빚을 떼이는 손실을 분담해야 한다는 것이다.
아일랜드의 정부 부채는 작년 말 현재 GDP 대비 96.2%였다. 하지만 씨티그룹에 따르면 2014년에 아일랜드의 정부 부채는 145%로 2차 구제금융이 논의 중인 현재의 그리스 수준과 같아진다. 전문가들은 이 경우 아일랜드 역시 추가 구제금융 논의가 나올 것으로 내다본다.
아일랜드의 경제 체력은 부채를 상환하기에 여전히 허약하다. 노무라증권은 올해 아일랜드 경제가 0.8% 뒷걸음질칠 것으로 내다봤다. 올해 유로존의 설비투자 증가율이 작년 대비 5.0%에 달하지만 아일랜드는 오히려 3.2% 감소하고, 총 저축률은 아일랜드가 11.8%로 유로존 평균인 19.3%에 크게 못 미칠 전망이다.
서구 언론들이 재정 위기에 빠진 유럽의 포르투갈·이탈리아(또는 아일랜드)·그리스·스페인의 영문 첫 글자를 따서 만든 용어. 이들 국가는 대규모 재정 적자와 채무, 높은 실업률에 허덕이고 있다는 공통점을 갖고 있다.
An island in the North Atlantic, Ireland features coastal mountains in the west and interior agricultural lowlands, with numerous hills, lakes, and bogs. The Republic of Ireland occupies about 83 percent of the island of Ireland—Northern Ireland, in the northeast, is part of the United Kingdom. Irish, or Irish Gaelic (a Celtic language), is the country's first official language and is taught in schools, but few native speakers remain. Éire (AIR-uh) is the Irish name for the Republic of Ireland. English is the second official language and is more common.
The object of waves of invasion from Europe, the Emerald Isle has been inhabited for 7,000 years. Celtic invaders from Europe came in the sixth century B.C. Tradition holds that, in A.D. 432, St. Patrick began converting the Irish to Christianity. England began seizing land in the 1100s, but many areas remained in Irish hands until the 16th century. In the 19th century Ireland's growing population was becoming ever more dependent on the potato for sustenance. The potato crop could not withstand the large amount of precipitation that fell year after year in the 1840s, causing blight and rotting the harvest. Death and emigration reduced the population from eight to six million by 1856, and it would fall further—today is about 5.9 million residents (4.2 million in the Republic of Ireland).
Eventually, in 1922, the Roman Catholic counties won independence, while mostly Protestant Northern Ireland remained under British control. Since independence, forces for and against uniting the island have claimed thousands of lives. In 1998 a peace agreement was signed by the Northern Ireland parties, Britain, and Ireland—with Ireland giving up its territorial claim to Northern Ireland. The country's robust growth promotes trade, foreign investment, and industries such as electronics. In the south, the Waterford area enjoys a slightly sunnier climate and is a growing area for business and retirement.
- Industry: Food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
- Agriculture: Turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets; beef
- Exports: Machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, live animals
Ireland’s booming tourist industry was predicted by Sir Cornelius O’Brien—a self-proclaimed descendent of legendary High King Brian Boru—who wanted to capitalize on the throngs of Victorian tourists coming to see the magnificent views from the Cliffs of Moher in County Clare. In 1835, O’Brien built his tower at the highest point of the cliffs so that visitors could stand on the roof in hopes of catching a glimpse of attractions like Galway Bay, the Twelve Pins, and the Aran Islands.
A farmer and his dogs rest for a moment in a County Mayo field. Farming remains an important industry in Ireland, a land that was shaped millions of years ago by the last ice age.
A weather-beaten gate invites curious passersby to explore an equally weathered castle on Ireland's west coast. The country is home to countless castles, most of which once served as strongholds for warring chieftains.
Dublin’s historic Brazen Head Pub, established in 1198, calls itself Ireland’s oldest pub. Literary fans will recognize the pub from its appearances in Ulysses, James Joyce’s Modernist novel about the life of Dubliner Leopold Bloom.
Built in 1835, Eagle Island Lighthouse in County Mayo warns ships away from treacherous rocks. In 1861, a massive wave broke over the wall and shattered the east lantern.
Celtic crosses mark graves outside a church in Doolin, a seaside town in County Clare. A number of crumbling churches dot the ancient town, which draws world-class musicians—and music lovers—to its pubs.
Low tide exposes moss-covered rocks at Killiney Beach in Dublin County. The town of Killiney features exclusive neighborhoods that house Irish celebrities like rock star Bono, songstress Enya, and crooner Van Morrison.
Ireland’s music has a storied history that runs the gamut from traditional Celtic sounds to U2’s anthemic rock. Here, Irish musicians play their fiddles at a tavern while enjoying a pint.
A brightly lit pub entices customers looking for a pint in Dublin. A mix of traditional Irish pubs and more modern nightclubs and cocktail bars makes up the city's thriving nightlife scene.
"He's quiet and easy to catch," says Lee Johnson, at left, of his pony Gypsy. Lee tends his charge in a stable behind his home in the Clondalkin district of Dublin, a metropolis where cars still dodge horse-drawn carts hauling vegetables to market.
Ubiquitous stone fences snake across Ireland’s idyllic pastoral countryside. Although many towns have transformed themselves into tourist hot spots, many remain virtually untouched by modern influences.
Although dolmens, large Neolithic tombs crafted from stone, are common in the Irish countryside, perhaps the most famous is County Clare's Poulnabrone, which translates to “hole of sorrows.” Excavations in the 1980s found that the imposing stones served as a marker for the graves of 16 to 22 people.
The craggy Cliffs of Moher wrap around the western coast of County Clare, providing a stunning view of the Atlantic Ocean. The rocky cliffs reach 702 feet (214) meters at their highest point and stretch nearly 5 miles (8 kilometers) across.
Visitors to Dublin’s historic Trinity College marvel at the vaulted ceilings of the Old Library Building’s Long Room, which houses the Book of Kells and a rare first edition of Dante's Divine Comedy. The library serves as the primary place of study and research for the more than 15,000 students that attend Ireland’s oldest university.
The number of visitors to Dingle skyrocketed after the scenic harbor town served as the setting for the Academy Award-winning Ryan’s Daughter, a 1970 film starring Robert Mitchum. Today, the town officially goes by the Gaelic name of An Daingean (“the fortress”) and relies heavily on the annual summer influx of tourists.
Dublin - 10 Things You Need To Know
Ireland the Beautiful
Connemara in County Galway, Ireland
Kylemore Abbey, reflecting on the lake in front
Street in Galway, Ireland
Dublin Spire and O'Connell Street in Dublin, Ireland
The Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin
Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Dublin, Ireland or better known as the Christ Church Cathedral
Christ Church Cathedral, Ireland
Detail of the a stained glass window in the Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland
Tomb of Lord John Bowes in the crypt of the Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin
Stained glass inside the baptistery of the Christ church Cathedral
The nave and alter of the Christ church Cathedral
Fleet Street in the Temple Bar area of Dublin
Arnaldo Pomodoro's Sphere within Sphere on the grounds of Trinity College in Dublin
Arnaldo Pomodoro's Sphere within Sphere on the grounds of Trinity College in Dublin
Bedford Tower from the courtyard of Dublin Castle
Norman Tower and Chapel Royal of the Dublin Castle
The State Apartments, Norman Tower and Chapel Royal of the Dublin Castle
Inside the Brazen Head pub in Dublin, Ireland. The pub claims to be the oldest in Ireland dating back to 1198. I'm not sure if it is truly that old, but at least atmosphere, the Irish stew and the Guinness were excellent
Guinness sign outside the Brazen Head pub in Dublin
The Brazen Head pub in Dublin,
Four Courts in Dublin, Ireland
Bell tower and cemetery of St. Michan's Church in Dublin
The crypt below St. Michan's Church in Dublin
High Alter of the Capuchin Friary in Dublin
Capuchin Friary in Dublin
Rock of Cashel, Ireland
the River Barrow in Carlow, Ireland
Killarney National Park in August
Sea at dusk on the Kerry coast (southwest Ireland),
Boat harbor in Ireland
Ireland: The Beautiful
Hay field in Kildare, Ireland
Custom House from the DART traveling from Howth to Bray in Dublin
O'Connel Street, Dublin Spire and the GPO
Northern Ireland Tourism
The Galway Races, a weeklong festival of horse racing, is the biggest race meeting in Ireland. Even now, during the recession, they draw huge crowds, as much for the social life as the racing, as much for dressing up as for picking a good bet.
West coast of Ireland
Slievenamon, County Tipperary, Ireland,
Sheep grazing on the slopes of Benbulbin in County Sligo
Ruined castle in Galway
Ring of Kerry, or rather its southern part, with the Kenmare River.
An old castle located in the west of Ireland, near the Rock of Cashel
Morning sun touches the hills and sand dunes of Inishowen, Ireland.
the Irish floodplains during the winter
Connemara in County Galway, Ireland
IRELAND-Malahide, Photographed by Gintaras Varnagys
Foggy Dublin street
Malahide Irish Sea
Waiting for the sun
Ireland Loughshinny beach
Dublin malahide sunset
Evening walk in Dublin
Cliff of Moher
Malahide Castle, parts of which date to the 12th century, lies, with over 260 acres (1.1 km2) of remaining estate parkland (the Malahide Demesne Regional Park), close to the village of Malahide, nine miles (14 km) north of Dublin in Ireland.
The estate began in 1185, when Richard Talbot, a knight who accompanied Henry II to Ireland in 1174, was granted the "lands and harbour of Malahide". The oldest parts of the castle date back to the 12th century and it was home to the Talbot family for 791 years, from 1185 until 1976, the only exception being the period from 1649-1660, when Oliver Cromwell granted it to Miles Corbet after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland; Corbet was hanged following the demise of Cromwell, and the castle was restored to the Talbots. The building was notably enlarged in the reign of Edward IV, and the towers added in 1765.A Short History of Ireland (4/7)
A Short History of Ireland (5/7)
River Suir, Waterford
A local Irish pub
Parliamentary street, Kilkenny
St.Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny
St. Canice's Cathedral and Round Tower.
St Canice’s Cathedral and Round Tower are an essential part of the structural heritage in the vibrant medieval city of Kilkenny. This ecclesiastical site was founded in the 6th century and named after St Canice. Cill Channigh is the Gaelic for the Church of Canice, the church that originally stood on the site in the 6th century.
The Round Tower is the oldest standing structure in Kilkenny City. St Canice’s Round Tower is one of only two Round Towers that people can climb in Ireland.
Kilkenny Castle (Irish: Caisleán Chill Chainnigh) is a castle in Kilkenny, Ireland built in 1195 by William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke to control a fording-point of the River Nore and the junction of several routeways. It was a symbol of Norman occupation and in its original thirteenth-century condition it would have formed an important element of the defences of the town with four large circular corner towers and a massive ditch, part of which can still be seen today on the Parade.
Troublesome options: 1 - Three Rock Bar; 2 - Farmhouse Bar; 3 - Tayloes Irish Night; 4 - Taylors Irish Cabaret
Taylors Irish Cabaret
Taylors Irish Cabaret. Artifact
"Molly Malone" (also known as "Cockles and Mussels" or "In Dublin's Fair City") (Irish: Mol Ní Mhaoileoin) is a popular song, set in Dublin, Ireland, which has become the unofficial anthem of Dublin City.
The Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street was unveiled by then Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alderman Ben Briscoe during the 1988 Dublin Millennium celebrations, declaring June 13 as Molly Malone Day.
The song tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger who plied her trade on the streets of Dublin, but who died young, of a fever. The name "Molly" originated as a familiar version of the names Mary and Margaret. While many such "Molly" Malones were born in Dublin over the centuries, no evidence connects any of them to the events in the song.Dublin
Grangegorman Military Cemetery, 1786. Grangegorman Military Cemetery is a military cemetery in Dublin, Ireland. It is located on Blackhorse Avenue, off the Navan Road..
The cemetery opened in 1786. In it are buried men who served in the British Forces and their wives and families. After 1923 only servicemen and their next of kin could be buried there.
Áras an Uachtaráin - the official residence of the President of Ireland
Kingsbridge, 1821 (King George IV Bridge)
Christ Church Cathedral (1030)
Dublin Castle (1204)
Christ Church place
The Millenium bridge(1999)
Lord Edward's street
A Short History of Ireland (6/7)
A Short History of Ireland (7/7)