경기 코스는 프랑스를 시계 방향과 반시계 방향을 해마다 번갈아 가며 달리는데 모든 운동 경기 중 가장 육체적으로 힘들다. 마라톤을 일주일에 몇 번을 삼주간 뛰는 것과 같고 자전거로 올라가는 높이는 에베레스트 산을 세 번 오르는 높이를 달린다. 최근에는 인근 나라를 지나기도 한다.
참가 팀은 조직 위원회가 선정하는 20 - 22 개 팀으로 매 팀마다 9명의 선수가 있다. 2010년도 우승한 스페인의 Alberto Contador 같이 한 구간도 우승하지 못했지만 우승한 경우가 지금까지 6번 있었다.
Tour de France
The Tour de France is an annual bicycle race held in France and nearby countries. First staged in 1903, the race covers more than 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi) and lasts three weeks. As the best known and most prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours", the Tour de France attracts riders and teams from around the world. The race is broken into day-long segments, called stages. Individual times to finish each stage are aggregated to determine the overall winner at the end of the race. The rider with the lowest aggregate time at the end of each day wears a yellow jersey. The course changes every year, but the race has always finished inParis. Since 1975, the climax of the final stage has been along the Champs-Élysées.
The tour typically has 21 days of racing and covers 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi). The shortest Tour was in 1904 at 2,420 kilometres (1,500 mi), the longest in 1926 at 5,745 kilometres (3,570 mi). The three weeks usually include two rest days, sometimes used to transport riders from a finish in one town to the start in another. The race alternates between clockwise and anticlockwise circuits of France. The first anticlockwise circuit was in 1913. The New York Times said the "Tour de France is arguably the most physiologically demanding of athletic events." The effort was compared to "running a marathon several days a week for nearly three weeks", while the total elevation of the climbs was compared to "climbing three Everests."
The number of teams usually varies between 20 and 22, with nine riders in each. Entry is by invitation to teams chosen by the race organiser, the Amaury Sport Organisation. Team members help each other and are followed by managers and mechanics in cars.
Riders are judged by the time each has taken throughout the race, a ranking known as the general classification. There may be time deductions for finishing well in a daily stage or being first to pass an intermediate point. It is possible to win without winning a stage, as Alberto Contador did in 2010; this has occurred six other times. There are subsidiary competitions (see below), some with distinctive jerseys for the best rider. Riders normally start together each day, with the first over the line winning, but some days are ridden against the clock by individuals or teams. The overall winner is usually a master of the mountains and of these time trials. Most stages are in mainland France, although since the 1960s it has become common to visit nearby countries. Stages can be flat, undulating or mountainous. Since 1975 the finish has been on the Champs-Élysées in Paris; from 1903 to 1967 the race finished at the Parc des Princesstadium in western Paris and from 1968 to 1974 at the Piste Municipale south of the capital.
Riders in most stages start together. The first kilometres, the départ fictif, are a rolling start without racing. The real start, the départ réel is announced by the Tour director waving a white flag.
Riders are permitted to touch, but not push or nudge, each other. The first to cross the line wins. On flat stages or stages with low hills, which generally predominate in the first week, this leads to spectacular mass sprints.
All riders in a group finish in the same time as the lead rider. This avoids dangerous mass sprints. It is not unusual for the entire field to finish in a group, taking time to cross the line but being credited with the same time. Since 2005, when riders fall or crash within the final 3 kilometres of a stage with a flat finish, they are awarded the same time as the group they were in. This change encourages riders to sprint to the finish for points awards without fear of losing time to the group. The final kilometre has been indicated since 1906 by a red triangle – the flamme rouge – above the road.
Time bonuses for the first three at intermediate sprints and stage finishes were discontinued with the 2008 race.
Stages in the mountains often cause major shifts in the general classification. On ordinary stages, most riders can stay in the peloton to the finish; during mountain stages, it is not uncommon for riders to lose 30 minutes or to be eliminated after finishing outside the time limit.
The first photo-finish was in 1955.
Individual time trials
Riders in a time trial compete individually against the clock, each starting at a different time. The first time trial was between La Roche-sur-Yon and Nantes (80 km) in 1934. The first stage in modern Tours is often a short trial, a prologue, to decide who wears yellow on the opening day. The first prologue was in 1967. The 1988 event, at La Baule, was called "la préface".
There are usually two or three time trials. One may be a team time trial. The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.
The launch ramp, a sloping start pad for riders, was first used in 1965, at Cologne.
Team time trial
A team time trial (TTT) is a race against the clock in which each team rides alone. The time is that of the fifth rider of each team: riders more than a bike-length behind their team's fifth rider are awarded their own times. The TTT has been criticised for favouring strong teams and handicapping strong riders in weak teams. After a four-year absence, the TTT returned in 2009 but was not included in 2010. It was reintroduced into the 2011 Tour.
The prologue stage in 1971 was a team time trial. The 1939 TTT crossed the Iseran mountain pass between Bonneval and Bourg-St-Maurice.
The race has finished since 1975 with laps of the Champs-Élysées. This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied. But in 1987, Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the 40-second lead held by Stephen Roche. He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour. In 1989 the last stage was a time trial. Greg LeMond overtook Laurent Fignon to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history.
The climb of Alpe d'Huez is a favourite, providing a stage in most Tours. In 2004, a time trial ended at Alpe d'Huez. Riders complained about abusive spectators and the stage may not be repeated. Mont Ventoux is often claimed to be the hardest in the Tour because of the harsh conditions. Another notable mountain stage frequently featured during the Tour climbs the Col du Tourmalet. Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Tour. The 2011 Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the 100th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: 2,645 m. In adition to that, the stage had a record-like difference in altitude between lowest and highest point of 2,444m. Some mountain stages have become memorable because of the weather. An example is a stage in 1996 Tour de France from Val-d'Isère to Sestriere. A snowstorm at the start area led to a shortening of the stage from 190 to just 46 km.
To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town. The prologue and first stage are particularly prestigious. Usually one town will host the prologue (too short to go between towns) and the start of stage 1. In 2007 director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice."
The fastest massed-start stage was in 1999 from Laval to Blois (194.5 km), won by Mario Cipollini at 50.4 km/h. The fastest full-length time-trial is David Zabriskie's opening stage of 2005, Fromentine – Noirmoutier-en-l'Ile (19 km) at 54.7 km/h. Chris Boardman rode faster during the 1994 prologue stage, Lille-Euralille (7.2 km), with 55.2 km/h. The fastest stage win was by the 2005 Discovery Channel team in a team time-trial. It completed the 67.5 km between Tours and Blois at 57.3 km/h.
Fastest climb of Alpe d'Huez: Marco Pantani in 1997 Tour de France by 23.1 km/h.
Fastest climb of Alpe d'Huez: Marco Pantani in 1997 Tour de France by 23.1 km/h.
Tour de France Map 2010
Tour de France 2010
Spain's Alberto Contador celebrates on the podium after the 19th stage time trial between Bordeaux and Pauillac on July 24. Contador's time was good enough to secure his third overall title in four years.
Spain's Alberto Contador is escorted to the podium after finishing the Stage 19 time trial between Bordeaux and Pauillac on July 24.
Fabian Cancellara won the Stage 19 time trial on July 24.
Actors Cameron Diaz and Tom Cruise pose with Tour de France race leader Alberto Contador of Spain on the podium July 23.
From left to right, Alessandro Petacchi, stage winner Mark Cavendish, Julian Dean and Edvald Boasson Hagen sprint toward the finish line of the 18th stage on July 23. Cavendish won his fourth stage win this year and his 14th of his career.
The pack passes through Tartas during the 18th stage on July 23.
Stage winner Andy Schleck, left, and Alberto Contador congratulate each other after crossing the finish line of the 17th stage on Thursday, July 22. The two cyclists dueled all the way up the Tormalet Pass, with Contador able to answer Schleck's attack and keep the overall lead and the yellow jersey.
The pack of riders cycles during the 17th stage from Pau to Tourmalet Pass along with some sheep.
Riders along a bend in the road during the 17th stage.
Pierrick Fedrigo, left, sprints ahead of Ruben Plaza Molina, second from left, and Lance Armstrong, right, to win the 16th stage of the Tour de France on Tuesday.
Alberto Contador of Spain, wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, is followed by Samuel Sanchez of Spain as they speed down Tourmalet pass during the 16th stage of the Tour de France in the Pyrenees region of France on Tuesday, July 20.
Riders cycle through the Mas d'Azil cave during the 15th stage of the Tour de France on July 19.
Overall leader Andy Schleck, right, looks at his chain as he rides with Alberto Contador in the 15th stage of the Tour de France on July 19. Because of Schleck's chain problem, Contador passed him to take the lead.
The pack climbs towards Port de Bales pass during the 15th stage of the Tour de France on July 19.
The pack of riders cycles past sunflowers during the 14th stage of the 97th Tour de France between Revel and Ax-3-Domaines, France, on Sunday, July 18.
Cyclists ride the course of Stage 14 of the Tour de France, the first stage to enter the Pyrenees in Ax 3 Domaines.
Andy Schleck, wearing the yellow jersey of overall race leader, rides during during the 13th stage of the Tour de France between Rodez and Revel on Saturday, July 17. The race ends with the 20th stage in Paris on July 25.
Picture shows wheels during the 13th stage.
Alexandre Vinokourov, of Kazakhstan, celebrates as he crosses the finish line to win the 13th stage. It was a far cry from the 2007 Tour, when Vinokourov was kicked out and instantly became an emblem of doping shame after testing positive for a banned blood transfusion.
A spectator in a yellow Citroen 2CV car waves as the pack, including yellow jersey-wearing Andy Schleck, passes during the 12th stage.
Andy Schleck, wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, center, rides in the pack during the 12th stage.
Thousands cheer as Kazakh rider Alexandre Vinokourov rides up a final climb to take third place on stage 12. The stage, which started in Bourg-de-Peage, included the La Croix Neuve pass which is nearly 1.2 miles in length with an average gradient of more than 10 percent.
The pack of riders cycles during the 11th stage between Sisteron and Bourg-Les-Valencee on Thursday, July 15.
Andy Schleck of Luxembourg, wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, Thor Hushovd of Norway, wearing the best sprinter's green jersey, and Robert Geesink of the Netherlands, wearing the best young rider's white jersey, talk prior to the start of the 11th stage of the Tour de France on July 15.
The pack, with Andy Schleck of Luxembourg wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, speeds down Noyer pass during the 10th stage on July 14.
The pack passes Sautet reservoir on July 14.
Cadel Evans of Australia talks with Lance Armstrong before the start of the ninth stage on Tuesday, July 13. Evans lost the overall lead, and the yellow jersey, after being injured.
The pack speeds down Saisies pass during the 9th stage
Andy Schleck, left, and Alberto Contador look back as they cycle ahead of the pack during the ninth stage. They are 1-2 in the overall standings.
A fan sits on a huge decoration yellow bike on July 11 during the eighth stage of the Tour de France.
Lance Armstrong pulls off the wig of a fan as he rides on July 11 in the eighth stage of the Tour de France.
Tour de France 2010 Highlights
Compilation of Crashes from the 2010 Tour De France
French rider Damien Monier is given oxygen at the finish of the eighth stage of the Tour de France on Sunday, July 11.
Stage 7 winner and new overall leader Sylvain Chavanel of France climbs towards Station des Rousses on Saturday, July 10.
Stage 7 winner Sylvain Chavanel of France gets sprayed with water by his team director.
Lance Armstrong of the US closes his shirt in the climb towards Station les Rousses during the seventh stage of the Tour de France cycling race over 165.5 kilometers (102.8 miles) with start in Tournus and finish in Station des Rousses, France, Saturday, July 10, 2010. (AP Photo/Bas Czerwinski)
Jean-Pierre Caloini, right, aka Le Frelon (the hornet) waves to the pack of riders on Friday, July 9, during the 6th stage.
A young girl chases the peloton along the 227.5km route from Montargis to Gueugnon in stage six of the Tour de France in Gueugnon, France.
The pack of riders cycles over a bridge during the sixth stage of the Tour de France on July 9.
A mechanic checks the bike of overall leader Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland on July 9.
The pack rides in the fifth stage of the Tour de France between Epernay and Montargis, France, on Thursday, July 8.
A fan sitting in a jeep vehicle looks at the riders during the fifth stage of the Tour de France on Thursday, July 8.
Britain's Mark Cavendish sprints to the finish of the fifth stage of the Tour de France on Thursday, July 7 in Montargis, France.
Photographers and fans take pictures as Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland, wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, drinks prior to the start of the fourth stage of the Tour de France on Wednesday, July 7.
Riders fall on the cobblestones during the third stage of the Tour de France on Tuesday, July 6, 2010. Several riders crashed on one of the seven sections of cobblestone in the stage.
Lance Armstrong rides in a cloud of dust on a cobblestone section during the third stage Tuesday, July 6, 2010. Armstrong got a flat tire and dropped to 18th overall. "It was bad luck," he said.
The pack of the riders makes a turn during the third stage of the Tour de France on Tuesday, July 6, 2010.
Sylvain Chavanel of France crosses the finish line to win the second stage of the Tour de France cycling race Monday, July 5, 2010. The second stage started in Brussels and finished in Spa, Belgium over 125 miles away. There were several falls during the stage, so the top riders slowed near the finish. Chavanel won because he broke away from the field.
Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland and Team Saxo Bank controls the peloton as they approach the finish line during Stage 2 in Spa, Belgium on Monday, July 5, 2010. The pack deliberately slowed down to avoid wrecks.
The pack with Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland, wearing the overall leader's yellow jersey, right, passes a village near Brussels on Monday, July 5, 2010.
U.S. cyclist Tyler Farrar of Garmin-Transition's waits for medics after a crash during Stage 2 on Monday, July 5, 2010. Farrar finished 191st in the stage and is 18 minutes back.
The pack rides at the start of the 125-mile second stage on Monday, July 5, 2010.
Five-time Tour de France winner Eddy Merckx, right, talks to overall leader Fabian Cancellara before the start of the second stage Monday, July 5, 2010.
Alessandro Petacchi sprints ahead of Mark Renshaw, second from the right, Thor Hushovd, second from the left, and Robbie McEwen in the final sprint Sunday, July 4, 2010. Petacchi clocked 5 hours, 9 minutes, 38 seconds for the stage.
Fans look at the pack ridding on the roadside between Rotterdam and Brussels on Sunday, July 4, 2010.
Riders fall during the first stage of the Tour on Sunday, July 4, 2010. It was "total mayhem," Lance Armstrong said after the stage.
The pack of riders cycles during the first stage of the 97th Tour de France on Sunday, July 4, 2010.
Lance Armstrong finishes fourth in the individual time trial in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on the first day of the Tour de France on Saturday, July 3. Armstrong has said this will be his last Tour.
Maarten Tjallingii from Team Rabobank rides during the prologue on Day 1.
U.S. rider Levi Leipheimer competes in the prologue on Day 1.
Footon-Serveto team rider Manuel Cardoso cycles after his fall during the prologue.
Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland and Team Saxo Bank pulls on the race leader's yellow jersey after winning the prologue.
This was Le Tour de France 2011
Best of Tour de France 2011
Mark Cavendish - Tour de France 2011 - Stage 21
Tour De France 2011, Final Day's Sprint, Champs Elysees in Paris
Tour de france 2011 crashes