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2011년 1월 14일 금요일

세계 대표적인 캐슬들: The most fabulous Castles

일전에 유럽의 성(Castle)에 대하여 조사하였는데 이번에는 여러 특징이 있는 성들을 찾아 보려고 한다. 예를 들면 아름다운 성, 오래된 성, 독특한 점이 있다던가 각 나라의 대표적인 성들과 기타 사연이 있는 성등을 알아보고자 한다.

1.Beeston Castle, Cheshire, England, built 1220s by Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, (1170-1232), on his return from the Crusades.





Inner Ward



Outer Ward Gateway, Beeston Castle
Outer Ward Gateway, Beeston Castle


2.Eilean Donan Castle, Scotland was built on a small island in Lock Duich in early 13th century as a defense against Viking.

Eilean Donan Castle Loch Duich Scotland 4
Photo: A colorful sunrise behind a Scotland castle







3.Edinburgh Castle, Scotland built atop the volcanic Castle Rock, began as a small fortress around the year A.D. 600. Over the centuries it has been the royal residence till 1603 and the site of scores of battles.

Photo: Edinburgh Castle



the one o'clock gun


4.Spis Castle, Slovakia, one of the largest castle sites in Central Europe, built in the 12th century on the site of an earlier castle. It was the political, administrative, economic and cultural centre of Spiš County of the Kingdom of Hungary.










5.Castle of Presule, Italy was first named in a document from 1279, as castrum Praesile and it is believed that the lords of Völs, feudatories of the Bishopric of Brixen, had built the castle here by 1200.It is in the Gothic style which stands on the high plain below the Schlern mountain, in the Province of Bolzano-Bozen.


Photo: Snowy mountains and a castle in Italy




6.Bodrum Castle: Turkey's Bodrum harbor is home to the Castle of St. Peter, which was built by the Hospitallers in the early 1400s. Süleyman I the Magnificent captured the site in 1522. This location had been already the site of a fortification in Doric times (1110 BC) and of a small Seljuk castle in the 11th century. 

Photo: Bodrum Castle








7.Alhambra Castle: Its complete form of the name was Calat Alhambra , the red fortress, is a palace and fortress complex constructed during the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers.The Alhambra integrates natural site qualities with constructed structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen, and builders of their era.



Granada - panorama of the old city from the Alhambra










Alhambra Ruins

8.Prague Castleis the largest coherent castle complex in the world with an area of 
almost 70000 m², being 570 meters in length and an average of about 130 meters wide. 
A Romanesque palace was erected during the 12th century. In the 14th century, 
under the reign of Charles IV the royal palace was rebuilt in Gothic style and 
the castle fortifications were strengthened.









Stained Glass in Prague Castle




9.Chateaude Chambord, France is one of the most recognizable chateaudex in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Italian structures. on 6 September 1519 François Pombriant was ordered to begin construction of Château Chambord. Building resumed in September 1526 after the Italian war designed as a hunting lodge for the King Francis, it was completely unfurnished during this period.All furniture, wall coverings, eating implements and so forth were brought specifically for each hunting trip, a major logistical exercise. It is for this reason that much furniture from the era was built to be disassembled to facilitate transportation. After François died of a heart attack in 1547, the château was not used for almost a century.



Chateau_de_Chambord




DaVinci designed stairway


10.The VersaillesWhen the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a suburb of Paris, some twenty kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Regime.

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Versailles Expo Murakami September 2010




The Ceiling of Versailles Chapel


War Room

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Grotto











11.Carcassonne Castle, France: Carcassonne France came under control of the French crown in 1247. King Louis IX (St. Louis) and his successor Philip III further strengthened the fortifications of Carcassonne Castle and built the "new town" outside the defenses. English troops laid siege to the city during the Hundred Years War, but once again in Carcassonne history, the fortifications proved impenetrable.












At the entrance of Carcassone castle there is the monument of Dame Carcas.



12.Alcazar of Segovia is a stone fortification, located in the old city of Segovia,Spain. Rising out on a rocky crag above the confluence of the rivers Eresma and Clamores near the Guadarrama mountains. Like many fortifications in Spain, started off as an Arab fort, but little of that structure remains. The shape and form of the Alcázar was not known until the reign of King Alfonso VIII (1155-1214), however early documentation mentioned a wooden stockade fence. It can be concluded that prior to Alfonso VIII's reign, it was no more than a wooden fort built over the old Roman foundations.
Alcazar Castle Segovia Spain 1
Alcazar Castle Segovia Spain 3












13.Castle of Teutonic Order or Malbork Castle, Poland: The town Malbork was built in Prussia around the fortress Ordensburg Marienburg which was founded in 1274 on the east bank of the river Nogat by the Teutonic Knights. Both the castle and the town (named Marienburgin German and in Polish as Malborg orMalbork) were named for their patron saint, the Virgin Mary. This fortified castle became the seat of the Teutonic Order and Europe's largest Gothic fortress.






뒤의 캐비지는 무슨 용도일까?









14.Sarzana Castle, Italy: The impressing castle of Sarzana (the former prision) was built in 1486 by the Pisani, with Lorenzo "Il Magnifico" as responsible for the project, on the area of the former castle "Firmafede".During the 18th century, the final part of the works was completed, when part of the building's centre was converted to be used as a prison.The whole building has wide moats; it is structured as a rectangle and has 6 large round-towers.The general adoption of cannons led therefore to the disappearing (or to the loss of importance) of majestic towers and merlons. Walls of new fortresses were thicker and angulated, towers became lower and stouter. Example of the late type of castle-fortress is that in Sarzana (Italy) built by Henry VIII of England in Deal







15.Castello Aragonese: The Castle of Aragonese was built on a rock near the island in Ischia, at the Northen end of Gulf of Naples in 474 BC, by Hiero I of Syracuse. At the same 
time, two towers were built to control enemy fleets' movements. The rock was then occupied by Parthenopeans(the ancient inhabitants of Naples). In 326 BC the fortress was captured by Romans, 
and then again by the Parthenopeans. In 1441 Alfonso V of Aragon connected the rock to
the island with a stone bridge instead of the prior wood bridge, and fortified the walls in order to 
defend the inhabitants against the raids of pirates.It has been occupied since ancient times 
by a various nations.







Tower of castle


View from Aragonese


16.Orava Castle, Slovakia: The natural rock formation known as "castle cliff" – a limy spur 112 meters (367 ft) high, surrounded by the Orava River and its right tributary stream Racova – has been inhabited since primeval times. During its history a wooden rampart became a strong walled castle of which the first written record dates back to 1267. At that time only the ground floor was built of stone, while the upper floors were made of wood. A tetrahedral multi-story towerntury was built here in the 14th century, probably on older foundations, as a donjon - the place of "last defense" within the castle. After 1474, King Matthew gave orders to build a square and a residence-wing in the Middle Castle. The buildings were situated in front of the castle. 


Tower of Orava Castle








17.Chateau de Chinon, France The mount of Chinon was first fortified as a stronghold by Theobald I, Count of Blois in the year 954. The importance of Chinon derives from its position on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon. In the 12th century Chinon, located in (then) County of Anjou, which was then independent of the kingdom of France, was a primary residence of Henry II(Angevin King and King of England). Henry was responsible for construction of almost all of the massive chateau, encompassing a site over 500 metres long and 75m wide, with a clock tower (14th century) rising 115 feet (35 m) high.This foundation flourished throughout Middle Ages, being rebuilt and extended four times; the eventual complex contained a large and highly decorated church, a cloister and a square of canons' residences.












18.Matsumoto Castle (松本城), also known as the "Crow Castle" (烏城) because of its black exterior, is one of Japan's premier historic castle It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture.The keep (tenshukaku), which was completed in the late 16th century, maintains its original wooden interiors and external stonework.







Samurai on horse, Genba-ishi Tableau


Genba-ishi Tableau.


Samurai battle scene painting, Matsumoto Castle


Roof beams inside with the shinto shimenawa rope












19.Neuschwanstein Castle is a 19th-century Gothic Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Fuessen in Bavaria, Germany. The palace was commissioned 
by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and as a homage to Richard Wagner. The palace was intended 
as a personal refuge for the reclusive king, but it was opened to the paying public immediately 
after his death in 1886.
















Door to nowhere



View from the castle




Bridge at Neuschwanstein Castle

20.Chapultepec Castle, Mexico is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. The name Chapultepec stems from the Nahualt word chapoltepēc which means "at the grasshopper's hill". It is located in the middle of Chapultepec Park in Mexico City at a height of 2,325 meters (7,628 ft) above sea level. The site of the hill was a sacred place for Aztecs, and the buildings atop it have served several purposes during its history; including that of Military Academy, Imperial residence, Presidential home,observatory, and presently, the Museo Nacional de Historia.

Entrance to the castle
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File:DF castillo Chapultepec.JPG







Statute in the garden of castle








21.Fenis Castle is an Italian medieval castle located in the town of Fenis, not far from Aosta. It is one of the most famous castles in Aosta Valley.The castle first appears in a document in 1242 A.D. as a property of the Viscounts of Aosta, the Challant family. At that time it probably was a simple keep surrounded by walls. It was from 1320 A.D. to 1420 A.D., under the lordship of Aimone of Challant and of his son Bonifacio of Challant, that the castle expanded to the actual appearance.





















A Bowman's perspective: 궁수가 보기 위한 틈새

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Video Clip of Around 60 Castles of Europe
video

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