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2011년 5월 20일 금요일

파키스탄의 세계 문화 유산과 최근 모습: World Heritage in Pakistan

파키스탄의 참 모습은 최근에 비친 소요와 혼란과 호전적인 나라가 아니었다. 매스콤에서 제공하는 한정된 정보만 받아서 그런지 몰라도 나 자신도 무척이나 비호감과 적대적인 감정이 다소 있었다. 똑같이 귀한 인간들이 세상에서 최선의 삶을 살고 있을 것이고... 언제 어디서나 그렇듯이 민초들은 순전하고 주어진 삶을 고생이 당연한 것이라고 여기며 살고 있는데 문제는 나라를 다스리는 지도자들의 능력과 자질에 의해 때론 평화를 구가하며 때론 엄청난 시련과 비참한 삶을 사는 것이다.

파키스탄인들 그들의 역사와 전통 그리고 동양적인 가치로 점철되어 온 그들의 진면목과 자연 문화 유산등을 알고자 다시 나섰다. 그러나 구할 수 있는 것은 비관적이랄까 부정적인 인상을 주는 것들이 너무 많았다. 보는 사람과 생각에 따라서 물론 받는 느낌이 다르겠지만....
Pakistan

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World Heritage in Pakistan
1.Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro
The ruins of the huge city of Moenjodaro – built entirely of unbaked brick in the 3rd millennium B.C. – lie in the Indus valley. The acropolis, set on high embankments, the ramparts, and the lower town, which is laid out according to strict rules, provide evidence of an early system of town planning.

Mohenjodaro is the most ancient and best-preserved urban ruin on the Indian subcontinent, dating back to the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC, and exercised a considerable influence on the subsequent development of urbanization on the Indian peninsula.
The archaeological site is located on the right bank of the Indus River, 400 km from Karachi, in Pakistan's Sind Province. It flourished for about 800 years during the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. Centre of the Indus Civilization, one of the largest in the Old World, this 5,000-year-old city is the earliest manifestation of urbanization in South Asia. Its urban planning surpasses that of many other sites of the oriental civilizations that were to follow.
Of massive proportions, Mohenjodaro comprises two sectors: a stupa mound that rises in the western sector and, to the east, the lower city ruins spread out along the banks of the Indus. The acropolis, set on high embankments, the ramparts, and the lower town, which is laid out according to strict rules, provide evidence of an early system of town planning.
The stupa mound, built on a massive platform of mud brick, is composed of the ruins of several major structures - Great Bath, Great Granary, College Square and Pillared Hall - as well as a number of private homes. The extensive lower city is a complex of private and public houses, wells, shops and commercial buildings. These buildings are laid out along streets intersecting each other at right angles, in a highly orderly form of city planning that also incorporated important systems of sanitation and drainage.
Of this vast urban ruin of Moenjodaro, only about one-third has been reveal by excavation since 1922. The foundations of the site are threatened by saline action due to a rise of the water table of the Indus River. This was the subject of a UNESCO international campaign in the 1970s, which partially mitigated the attack on the prehistoric mud-brick buildings.
Moenjodaro in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ] ), situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is sometimes referred to as "an ancient Indus valley metropolis"
Larkana Village in Sindh

The Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar at Shewan, Sindh, Pakistan: Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (1177–1274) (Sindhi: لال شھباز قلندر), a Persian (Tajik) Sufi saint, philosopher, poet, and qalandar. Born Syed Usman Shah Marwandi,[1] he belonged to the Suhrawardiyya order of Sufis. He preached religious tolerance among Muslims and Hindus. Thousands of pilgrims visit his shrine every year, especially at the occasion of his Urs.
Life
Shahbaz Qalandar (Shaikh Usman Marwandi) was born in Marwand, Afghanistan[2] to a dervish, Syed Ibrahim Kabiruddin[3] whose ancestors migrated from Baghdad and settled down in Mashhad, a center of learning and civilization, before migrating again to Marwand.
A contemporary of Baha-ud-din Zakariya, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkh-posh of Uchch, Shams Tabrizi and Rumi, he travelled around the Muslim world settled in Sehwan (Sindh, Pakistan) and was buried there.[4]
His dedication to the knowledge of various religious disciplines enabled him to eventually become a profound scholar. During his lifetime, he witnessed the Ghaznavid and Ghurids rules in South Asia.[5] He became fluent in many languages including Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Sindhi and Sanskrit. His mysticism attracted people from all religions. He was called Lal (red) after his usual red attire, Shahbaz due to his noble and divine spirit, and Qalandar for his Sufi affilitation. Hindus regarded him as the incarnation of Bhrithari. Lal Shahbaz lived a celibate life.
Evidence shows that Shahbaz Qalander was in Sindh before 1196, when he met Pir Haji Ismail Panhwar of Paat; it is believed he entered Sehwan in 1251. Shahbaz Qalander established his Khanqah in Sehwan and started teaching in Fuqhai Islam Madarrsah; during this period he wrote his treatises Mizna-e-Sart, Kism-e-Doyum, Aqd and Zubdah.
The courtyard of the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar at Shewan, Sindh.
 
Buddhist Stupa at Moenjodaro:The Buddhist Stupa and monasteries of Kushana period dating back to 2nd century AD were constructed about 16 centuries after the downfall of the Indus civilisation. The approach to the drum of the stupa lies in the middle of its eastern side. Treasure hunters dug in the hollow drum of the stupa in search of the treasure and removed the relic casket long before the scientific excavations were taken up in 1922. On all for sides of the courtyard of the stupa are monastic cells and on the east there are 2 common large rooms. A large number of coins of King Vasudeva belonging to Kushana period, were found from the monastery.
Moenjodaro in Larkana: Rediscovery and excavation
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[2] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[3] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
The last major excavations were conducted in 1964-65 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to damage done to the exposed structures by weathering. Since 1965, the only projects allowed at the site have been salvage excavation, surface surveys and conservation projects. Despite the ban on major archaeological projects, in the 1980s, teams of German and Italian survey groups, led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi, combined techniques such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, surface scraping and probing, to determine further clues about the ancient civilization.

Historical significance
Mohenjo-daro in ancient times was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [5] It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, during its peak. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley.[6]
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus river valley (now Pakistan and northwest India). Another name for this civilization is the "Harappan Civilization" (Harappa is another important IVC site to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab).
The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.
The great Bath at Moenjodaro: The Great Bath is one of the best known structures among the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro.[1][2] It is located in the well-preserved northern part of Mohenjo-daro's western mound, which is also known as the "Mound of the Great Bath" or the "citadel".[3]
Archaeological evidence indicates that the Great Bath was built just sometime after raising of the mound on which it is located. It was no longer in use during the last phases of the Late Period of the civilization.[4] It was discovered during 1925-26.[1]
The Great Bath measures 11.88 meters x 7.01 meters, and has a maximum depth of 2.43 meters. Two wide staircases, one from the north and one from the south, served as the entry to the structure.[5] The Great Bath is built of fine baked bricks lined with bitumen (presumably to keep water from seeping through), which indicates that it was used for holding water. Many scholars have suggested that it could have been a place for ritual bathing or religious ceremonies, but the actual use remains a mystery.
Architecture and urban infrastructure
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street-grid of rectilinear buildings. Most are of fired and mortared brick; some incorporate sun dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests high levels of social organisation. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-Daro could have housed around 35,000 residents.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most house have inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings were two-storeyed.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler designated one large, probably public facility as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer note the complete lack of evidence for grain at "granary", which might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[7]
Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool is large – 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind. Near the Great Bath is the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms and thought to have been a priestly residence.
Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls but was otherwise well fortified, with towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization vanished from history until rediscovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.
Moenjodaro Pakistan
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Artifacts
A bronze "Dancing girl" statuette, 10.8 cm high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described her as his favorite statuette:
"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet.[8]
The archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
In 1927 a seated male figure, 17.5 cm tall, was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled the city, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus valley civilization.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.
Traditional Bullock Cart at Moenjodaro


2.Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol

The Buddhist monastic complex of Takht-i-Bahi (Throne of Origins) was founded in the early 1st century. Owing to its location on the crest of a high hill, it escaped successive invasions and is still exceptionally well preserved. Nearby are the ruins of Sahr-i-Bahlol, a small fortified city dating from the same period.

The Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and the neighbouring city remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol are among the most characteristic of this type of structure.
The Buddhist monastic complex of Takht-i-Bahi (Throne of Origins) is situated on top of a 152 m high hill, about 80 km from Peshawar and 16 km north-west of the city of Mardan. It was founded in the early 1st century AD, and was successively occupied and expanded from that time until it fell into disuse through the discontinuation of charitable endowments in modern times. Owing to its location on the crest of a hill, it escaped the invasions of the Huns and other antagonistic peoples, leaving it today with much of its original character intact. The name Takht-i-Bahi derives from the spring on the hilltop and is literally translated as 'Spring Throne'.
The complex, the most impressive and complete Buddhist monastery in Pakistan, consists of four main groups:
  • the Court of Stupas with a cluster of stupas beside the main stupa in the middle courtyard, embellished with a series of tall niches to enshrine Buddhist statues;
  • the early monastic complex with residential cells around an open court, assembly hall and refectory;
  • the temple complex with a main stupa in the middle of a courtyard adorned with statues niches similar to the earlier stupa court;
  • the tantric monastic complex with an open courtyard in front of a series of dark cells with low openings for mystical meditation, in keeping with tantric practice.
In 1871, many sculptures were found at Takht-i-Bahi. Some depicted stories from the life of the Buddha while others, more devotional in nature, included the Buddha and Bodhisattava.
The Court of Stupas is surrounded on three sides by open alcoves or chapels. The excavators were of the view that originally they contained single plaster statues of the Buddha sitting or standing, dedicated in memory of holy men or donated by rich pilgrims. The monastery to the north was probably a two-storey structure consisting of an open court, ringed with cells, kitchens and a refectory.
Takht-i-Bahi Ruins 1/2
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Takht-i-Bahi 2/2
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The Buddhist monastic complex of Takht-i-Bahi (Throne of Origins - A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1980) is situated on top of a 152 m high hill, about 80 km from Peshawar and 16 km north-west of the city of Mardan. It was founded in the early 1st century AD, and was successively occupied and expanded from that time until it fell into disuse through the discontinuation of charitable endowments in modern times. Owing to its location on the crest of a hill, it escaped the invasions of the Huns and other antagonistic peoples, leaving it today with much of its original character intact. The name Takht-i-Bahi derives from the spring on the hilltop and is literally translated as 'Spring Throne'.

3.Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahor
These are two masterpieces from the time of the brilliant Mughal civilization, which reached its height during the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan. The fort contains marble palaces and mosques decorated with mosaics and gilt. The elegance of these splendid gardens, built near the city of Lahore on three terraces with lodges, waterfalls and large ornamental ponds, is unequalled.
Lahore Fort, Pakistan

The Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore are a unique artistic realization which, while bearing exceptional testimony to the Mughal civilization, has exercised a considerable influence, long after its creation in the Punjab and throughout the Indian subcontinent.
Lahore Fort, situated north-west of the city, has the same mythical origins as the city because its foundation is attributed to Prince Lob, son of Rama. Yet the first historic references to the fort date from before the 11th century. Destroyed and rebuilt several times by the Mughals from the 13th to the 15th centuries, it was definitively rebuilt and reorganized starting with the reign of Emperor Akbar (1542-1605). Based on the 21 monuments preserved within its boundaries, it comprises the most beautiful repertory of the forms of Mughal architecture, whose evolution may be followed over more than two centuries. The monuments from the reign of Akbar are characterized by the use of regular wall masonry consisting of baked bricks and blocks of red sandstone. Hindu influence may be noted, especially in the zoomorphic corbels which do not belong to the Mughal tradition.
Among the testimonies to this first series of structures, the Masjidi Gate flanked by two bastions and the Khana-e-Khas-o-Am (Public and Private Audience Hall) may be cited. The style of Akbar's constructions was not appreciably altered by his successor, Jahangir, who finished the large north court in 1617-18 that had been begun by Akbar and, in 1624-25, undertook the decoration of the north and north-west walls of the Fort.
On the other hand, the buildings constructed by Shah Jahan (1627-58), the prince-architect with sumptuous tastes, differ from their antecedents given the luxururious materials, marble, hard stone, and mosaics, and their exuberant decorative repertory, which is alive with motifs borrowed from Iranian art. The entire complex of fairy-like buildings surrounding the Court of Shah Jahan (Diwan-e-Kas, Lal Burj, Khwabgah-e-Jahangiri, etc.) and especially the Shah Burj or Shish Mahal, make it one of the most beautiful palaces in the world. Built in 1631-32, it sparkles with mosaics of glass, gilt, semi-precious stones and marble screening. All these monuments, and those, no less attractive, built under the reign of Aurangzeb, suffered greatly after the fall of the Mughal dynasty. The wars and sieges undergone by the Sikhs in the 19th century, and the British occupation, considerably reduced the monumental heritage of Lahore. Since 1927, a reorganization plan has been under study. It took effect in 1973 and suitable preservation measures were declared by the Government of Pakistan in 1975.
Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
Bad-e-Shahi Mosque, Lahore
Bad-e-Shahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore: 

  • Was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years
  • The four minarets of the Badshahi Mosque are 13.9 ft (4.2 m) taller than those of the Taj Mahal and the main platform of the Taj Mahal can fit inside the 278,784 sq ft (25,899.9 m2) courtyard of the Badshahi Mosque, which is the largest mosque courtyard in the world.
  • On the occasion of the second Islamic Summit held at Lahore February 22, 1974, thirty-nine heads of Muslim states offered their Friday prayers in the Badshahi Masjid
  • A small museum is also attached to the mosque complex. It contains relics of the Prophet Muhammad, his cousin Ali, and his daughter, Fatimah.
Sikh Gudawara, Lahore, Pakistan
Shik Gudawara, Lahore

 
Shalamar Gardens in Lahore:The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 A.D. (1051 A.H.) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khan and Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni.
Colors of Lahore 1/2
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Colors of Lahore 2/2
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Lahore: Heart of Pakistan
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Shalamar Gardens:The Shalamar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate fretwork. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. In 1981, Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Lahore Fort, under the UNESCO Convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972.
The three level terraces of the Gardens
The Gardens have been laid out from south to north in three descending terraces, which are elevated by 4-5 metres (13-15 feet) above one another. The three terraces have names in Urdu as follows:
The upper terrace named Farah Baksh meaning Bestower of Pleasure.
The middle terrace named Faiz Baksh meaning Bestower of Goodness.  
The lower terrace named Hayat Baksh meaning Bestower of life. 
Shalimar Gardens: 410 fountains
From this basin, and from the canal, rise 410 fountains, which discharge into wide marble pools. The surrounding area is rendered cooler by the flowing of the fountains, which is a particular relief for visitors during Lahore's blistering summers, with temperature sometimes exceeding 120 degrees fahrenheit. It is a credit to the ingenuity of the Mughal engineers that even today scientists are unable to fathom how the fountains were operated originally. The distribution of the fountains is as follows:
The upper level terrace has 105 fountains.
The middle level terrace has 152 fountains.
The lower level terrace has 153 fountains.
All combined, the Gardens therefore have 410 fountains.
Water cascades
The Gardens have 5 water cascades including the great marble cascade and Sawan Bhadoon.
Jahangir's Tomb in Lahore
Nur Jehan's Tomb in Lahore: Begum Nur Jahan (Persian/Urdu: نور جہاں ) (alternative spelling Noor Jahan, Nur Jehan, Nor Jahan, etc.) (1577–1645), also known as Mehr-un-Nisaa, was an Empress of the Mughal Dynasty, of Persian origin whose tomb lies in Lahore, Pakistan.
Begum Nur Jahan was the twentieth and favourite wife of Mughal Emperor Jahangir, who was her second husband - and the most famous Empress of the Mughal Empire. The story of the couple's infatuation for each other and the relationship that abided between them is the stuff of many (often apocryphal) legends. She remains historically significant for the sheer amount of imperial authority she wielded - the true "power behind the throne," as Jehangir was battling serious addictions to alcohol and opium throughout his reign - and is known as one of the most powerful women who ruled India with an iron fist.
Gatehouse to Jehangir's Tomb
Jehangir's Tomb
 
Ashif Khan's Tomb at Shahdara in Lahore
Chaurburji in Lahore:Chauburji (Urdu: ﭼﻮﺑﺮﺟﻰ) (Chau meaning: four, burji meaning: towers) is one of the most famous monuments among the structures and buildings of the Mughal era in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.
In the historic city of Lahore, on the road that led southwards to Multan, the Chauburji gateway remains of an extensive garden known to have existed in Mughal times. The establishment of this garden is attributed to Mughal Princess Zeb-un-Nisa, 1646 AD, which appears in one of the inscriptions on the gateway. The gateway consists of four towers and contains much of the brilliant tile work with which the entire entrance was once covered. 
The Hazuri Bagh Baradari in Lahore is a baradari of white marble located in the Hazuri Bagh of Lahore, Pakistan. It was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, an Indian Sikh ruler in 1818. Elegant carved marble pillars support delicate cusped arches. The central area, where Maharaja Ranjit Singh held court, has a mirrored ceiling. The pavilion consisted of two storeys until it was damaged by lightning in 1932.
Baradari in Lahore


4.Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta

The capital of three successive dynasties and later ruled by the Mughal emperors of Delhi, Thatta was constantly embellished from the 14th to the 18th century. The remains of the city and its necropolis provide a unique view of civilization in Sind.

The archaeological site of Thatta and the necropolis of Makli testify in an outstanding manner to the civilization of Sind from the 14th to the 18th centuries. Within the broad family of Islamic monuments, those of Thatta represent a particular type, notable for the fusion of diverse influences into a local style. The effect of the Grand Mosque of Shah Jahan with its complex of blue and white buildings capped by 93 domes is unique.
From the 14th to the 18th centuries, Thatta played an important role in the history of Sind, as the city, which commanded the delta of the Indus, had been successively the capital of the Samma, Argun and Tarkhan dynasties before being governed from 1592 to 1739 in the name of the Mughal emperors of Delhi.
From 1739, when the province of Sind was ceded to the Shah Nadir of Iran, Thatta entered into a period of decadence and neglect. The site preserves, in a state of exceptional integrity, an imposing monumental complex with the remains of the city itself in the valley and especially those of the necropolis, massed at the edge of the Makli plateau, covering a distance of about 12 km.
The four centuries that comprise the golden age of Thatta have left their traces on the form of monuments of high quality in stone and brick. Among those in stone are the tombs of Jam Nizammudin, who reigned from 1461 to 1509, and those of Isa Khan Tarkhan the Younger and of his father, Jan Baba, both of which were constructed before 1644. Among the edifices in brick and glazed tiles are the mosque of Dabgir, that of Shah Jahan (1644-47) and numerous mausolea, and tombs of which the most colourful is that of Diwan Shurfa Khan (died 1638).
If the tomb of Jam Nizamuddin establishes evident ties with Hindu architecture of the Gujerat style and the influence of Mughal imperial architecture, it is in no way a simple copy. At Thatta, an original concept of stone decoration was born, perhaps using glazed tile models. Even in the area of architectural terracotta, the distant examples of Persia and Asia were transposed. Neither in their technique nor in their colour do the monuments of Thatta resemble those of Lahore.
The salt air carried by the monsoons has an extremely harmful and corrosive effect on the brick, rendering the preservation of a large number of monuments of the Makli plateau highly precarious.
Makli: One of the Greatest Necropolises of the World
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Thatta or Thatto is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. Thatta's major monuments are listed among the World Heritage Sites. Due to its proximity to the huge port of Karachi, the picturesque old town is frequented by visitors, especially on weekends

5.Rohtas Fort

Following his defeat of the Mughal emperor Humayun in 1541, Sher Shah Suri built a strong fortified complex at Rohtas, a strategic site in the north of what is now Pakistan. It was never taken by storm and has survived intact to the present day. The main fortifications consist of the massive walls, which extend for more than 4 km; they are lined with bastions and pierced by monumental gateways. Rohtas Fort, also called Qila Rohtas, is an exceptional example of early Muslim military architecture in Central and South Asia.

Rohtas Fort is an exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of central and south Asia, blending architectural and artistic traditions from Turkey and the Indian subcontinent to create the model for Mughal architecture and its subsequent refinements and adaptations. The majestic fort, surpassing many other citadels in grandeur and massiveness, is the only example of architecture of the time of Sher Shah Suri. The monument represents a milestone in the history of fort architecture. Its commanding situation, with its awesomely huge walls and trap gates, makes it a unique part of the cultural heritage.
Muslims settled in the north of the Indian subcontinent around 1200, but there were Arab communities throughout the peninsula from as early as the 8th century. In 1526 a powerful Islamic state, the Mughal Empire, was created in the north. Qila Rohtas (Rohtas Fort) was built in 1541-43, at a strategic site on a high plain in the north of what is now Pakistan, after the Mughal Emperor Humayun was expelled following his defeat at Chausa by Sher Khan, who was to take the name Sher Shah Suri. The fort was built to control the hostile local people, the Ghakkars, and as a precaution against the return of Humayun, which did not take place until 10 years after the death of Sher Shah in 1545, when it was surrendered by its governor, Tatar Khan Kasi, without resistance. Its name derives from Rohtasgarh, the site of Sher Shah's victory in 1539 over a Hindu power. After falling to the Mughal invaders, the fort continued in use until the reign of Aurangzeb. Over the subsequent centuries it served successive Durrani and Sikh masters, without being called upon to serve its original function. A village grew up within the walls and survives to the present day.
Rohtas is a complex of defensive works surrounding a small hill alongside the Kahan River. The massive defensive walls are irregular in plan, conforming with the broken topography, and extend for more than 4 km. They are built from stone and range in thickness up to a maximum of 12.5 m. Their height also varies according to the terrain, between 10.05 m and 18.28 m. There are usually two internal terraces or platforms, increased to three where the walls are higher, and these are linked by stone stairways. The ramparts are surmounted by imposing stone merlons. Within the thickness of the walls there are vaulted rectangular-plan galleries for use by the garrison as living quarters and as stores. The whole enceinte is lined with 68 semi-circular solid bastions, spaced irregularly, and pierced by 12 gates, some double and some single. Within the enclosure a cross-wall, of the same construction and 533 m long, defines the inner citadel or inner fort. The gates, built from sandstone, are massive and ornate. The finest is the Sohail Gate, which is flanked with elaborately decorated balconies carried on brackets and sturdy bastions. This style, based on earlier Pathan models, was to have a profound influence on the development of Mughal architecture.
The Shishi Gate derives its name from the glazed tiles used in the spandrels of the outer arch. This is one of the earliest examples of facing with glazed tiles in the region, a technique that was to be applied widely in the architecture of the Mughal Empire. Four of the other gates, covering particularly vulnerable approaches, are double ('trap') or oblique gates, which provide extra hazards for attackers.
Few buildings were constructed within the interior of the fort, much of which would have been given over to the production of food for the garrison. The Shahi Masjid, near the Kabuli Gate, is a small mosque consisting only of a prayer hall and a courtyard. Its simple but elegant ornamentation, such as the lily motif on the outer arches, foreshadows the decoration of later Mughal architecture, with elements derived from Hindu temple ornamentation. The fort had its own internal water supply, in the form of two baolis (stepped wells or tanks) cut into the limestone bedrock. That near the Kabuli Gate is surrounded by small chambers thought to have been intended for use as baths by members of the ruling family.
The Haveli Man Singh, named after the trusted general of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, is built on a rocky eminence. It is a two-storey structure in brick (unlike the rest of the fort) faced with plaster, in pure Hindu style, with canopied balconies. Only one of its four rooms survives intact.
Rohtas Fort(Built 1541)
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Wall of Rohtas Fort


6.Taxila
From the ancient Neolithic tumulus of Saraikala to the ramparts of Sirkap (2nd century B.C.) and the city of Sirsukh (1st century A.D.), Taxila illustrates the different stages in the development of a city on the Indus that was alternately influenced by Persia, Greece and Central Asia and which, from the 5th century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D., was an important Buddhist centre of learning.
Taxila lies 30 km north-west of Rawalpindi on the Grand Trunk Road. It is one of the most important archaeological sites in Asia. Situated strategically on a branch of the Silk Road that linked China to the West, the city flourished both economically and culturally. Taxila reached its apogee between the 1st and 5th centuries AD. Buddhist monuments were erected throughout the Taxila valley, which was transformed into a religious heartland and a destination for pilgrims from as far afield as Central Asia and China. That Taxila was very famous can be deduced from the fact that it is mentioned in several languages. In Sanskrit, the city was called Takshaçila (Prince of the Serpent Tribe); in Pâli it was known as Takkasilâ; the Greeks knew the town as Taxila, which the Romans rendered as Taxilla; the Chinese called it Chu-ch'a-shi-lo.
Taxila is a vast complex of ruins, some 30 km north-west of modern Islamabad, which includes a Mesolithic cave (Khanpur cave), four settlement sites (Saraidala, Bhir, Sirkap and Sirsukh), a number of Buddhist monasteries of various periods and above Giri, Muslim mosques and madrasas of the medieval period. The Bhir mound is the earliest historic city of Taxila and was probably founded in the 6th century BC by the Achaemenids, according to legend by a son of the brother of the legendary hero Rama. The first town was situated on a hill that commanded the river Tamra Nala, a tributary of the Indus. It was an important cultural centre and it is said that the Mahabharata was first recited at Taxila. Stone walls, house foundations and winding streets represent the earliest forms of urbanization on the subcontinent.
Sirkap was a fortified city founded during the mid-2nd century BC. Taxila was the capital of a kingdom called Hinduš (Indus country) and consisted of the western half of the Punjab. It was added to the Achaemenid empire under Darius I the Great, but the Persian occupation did not last long. The many private houses, stupas and temples are laid out on the Hellenistic grid system and show the strong Western classical influence on local architecture. The city was destroyed in the 1st century AD by the Kushans of central Asia.
To the north, excavations of the ruins of the Kushan city of Sirsukh have brought to light an irregular rectangle of walls in ashlar masonry with rounded bastions. This wall attests to the early influence of Central Asian architectural forms on those of the subcontinent.
The city of Sirkap (Severed Head), chronologically the second major city of Taxila, is to be found spreading down the Hathial Spur and on to the plains of the Taxila valley. It is bounded by the Tamra stream and to the north and south by the Gau stream, which today has been almost completely obliterated by a modern road and water channel. The present layout of the city was established by the Bactrian Greeks sometime around 180 BC and takes the form of a wide and open grid system. In general, the city presents a better planned architecture than Bhir Mound. The city is encompassed by a mighty wall over 5 km long and up to 6 m thick. There may well have been an entrance on each of the four sides originally, but today the only one evident is the northern wall and it is through here that visitors normally enter the city. A number of temples and monasteries can be found here: Apsidal Temple, Sun Temple, Shrine of the Double Headed Eagle, Kunala Monastery and Ghai Monastery.
The major attraction in this city is the Great Stupa, one of the largest and most impressive throughout Pakistan, located just 2 km east of Bhir Mound and Sirkap. The chapels and chambers around the Great Stupa were built at various times from the 1st century BC to the post-Kushan period. These structures display a wide range of designs and probably were donated by pilgrims, possibly representing various schools of Buddhism.
Other sites of interest include the city of Sirsukh which is believed to belong to the Kushan period. To the north of Sirkap are four temples, all standing on earlier mounds and overlooking the city. They are all in the style of Greek temples. The best to visit is probably the one at Jandial, 1.5 km north of Sirkap.
Taxila and Bahawalpur Pakistan
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Jaulian Monastery, Taxila
Statue of Buddha in Jaulian Monastery, Taxila
Remains of a statue at the main stupa.
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The Dharmarajika Stupa, Taxila
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Stupa Base at Sirkap, decorated with Hindu, Buddhist and Greek temple fronts.
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Jaulian silver Buddhist reliquary, with content.British Museum.
Taxila Museum
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A coin from 2nd century BC Taxila
Taxila Museum
7 Wonders of Pakistan
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Scenes From Pakistan

A young Hindu devotee covers her face as she is photographed after arriving at the Shri Hinglaj Mata Temple during a pilgrimage in Pakistan's Balochistan province on April 25, 2011. Thousands from Pakistan and India take part in the annual four-day pilgrimage to the temple, which is a revered site for Hindus.

A member of an anti-Taliban militia searches the site of a roadside bomb blast on the outskirts of Peshawar, Pakistan, on Wednesday, March 23, 2011.

Pakistani children cross over a stream using an aerial ferry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, on Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011.

A Pakistani boy carries wood on his head, walking toward a slum during sunset on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Monday, January 31, 2011.

In this photo taken Tuesday, February 8, 2011, a Pakistani boy wrapped-up against the cold in a heavy wool shawl looks on at the Kojak pass in Pakistan. The 2,290 meter (7,513 foot) high Kojak pass is one of the main connections from Pakistan into Afghanistan.

A man burns computer scrap in order to retrieve metal from it that will be used to make soldering wire in a makeshift workshop in Karachi, on April 20, 2011

A Pakistani child swims with buffaloes to beat the heat in Rawalpindi, Pakistan on Thursday, May 12, 2011. Residents of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are suffering from a hot summer further aggravated by long hours of power cuts due to load shedding.

Pakistani miners emerge from a tunnel during a rescue operation at a coal mine in the insurgency-torn province of Baluchistan, on March 20, 2011. At least seven miners were killed and 41 others trapped underground when explosions triggered a collapse in a coal mine in the Sorange district, officials said

Two Pakistanis ride a horse-drawn cart during heavy rainfall on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Monday, Feb. 7, 2011.

Supporters of the Pakistani religious party Jamaat-e-Islami in Karachi on , on Friday, May 6, 2011, listen to their leaders during a rally to condemn the U.S. for violating Pakistan's sovereignty and killing al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden. 

A Pakistani farm worker harvests wheat in Lahore, Pakistan, on Wednesday, April 20, 2011.

A laborer adjusts a billboard advertisement in Karachi's business district on February 3, 2011.

A worker inside an iron factory on the eve of International Labor Day, or May Day, in Lahore, on April 30, 2011

A Pakistan Army tank leaves a trail of dust while taking part in military exercises through the Khudai range in central Punjab's Muzaffargarh district on March 31, 2011.

Pakistani Christian minority leader J. Salik sprinkles ash over his body in Islamabad on March 24, 2011, to protest the Koran burning by U.S. pastor Terry Jones. Pakistan has strongly condemned the "deliberate desecration" of the Koran by the Florida-based evangelical preacher, calling it a setback for global efforts to promote harmony.

A local man skis on a mountain during a four-day skiing competition at the Malam Jabba resort, 300 kilometers (190 miles) northwest of the capital Islamabad in the Swat Valley, on March 20, 2011. The competition made it seem incredible that just a few years ago Taliban fanatics blew up the ski lift, set fire to the nearby hotel, turned Malam Jabba into a training ground and plotted to bring down the government.

A Pakistani girl watches the photographer, while standing on the muddy path of a slum during a rainy day, on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Wednesday, Feb. 16, 2011.

Trees covered in spider webs in the flood-affected areas of K.N. Shah, located near Dadu in Pakistan's Sindh province, on December 7, 2010. The cocooned trees were a side-effect of spiders escaping flood waters in the area. Although people in this part of Sindh have never witnessed this phenomenon, they report there are now less mosquitoes, thus reducing the risk of malaria.

An aerial view shows tents of flood-displaced people surrounded by water in southern Sehwan town on February 7, 2011. Catastrophic monsoon rains that swept through the country in July and August 2010 affected some 20 million people, destroyed 1.7 million homes and damaged 5.4 million acres of arable land.

Benazir, a four-year-old flood victim, stands inside her family's tent made of tarp in Adam Khan village, some 30 km (19 miles) from Dadu in Pakistan's Sindh province, on January 27, 2011. Six months after the floods raged through Pakistan, victims of one of the country's worst natural disasters are still heavily dependent on aid agencies. 
Pakistan Part 1
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Pakistan 2
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A Pakistani policeman investigates an eyewitness account after an attack by Taliban militants in Pindi Gheb, about 110 kilometers from Islamabad, on early May 2, 2011. Taliban militants killed seven people including four police officials and set fire around 15 NATO vehicles on the main road heading northwest from the Pakistani capital, police said. 

A Pakistani shop owner stands in front of his establishment which sells stolen NATO supplies in Quetta, Pakistan -- one of many such shops throughout Pakistan -- on Feb. 7, 2011. Fuel and other supplies for NATO troops in southern Afghanistan are transported along dangerous routes by impoverished Pakistani drivers, and are frequently attacked. The war, now in its 10th year, consumes roughly 6 million liters (1.5 million gallons), about 100 truckloads, of fuel a day, according to NATO forces.

Pakistani youth enjoy ride on a swing-boat as others watch, in a slum area on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Monday, Feb. 21, 2011

Pakistani laborers selling flower petals wait for customers at a flower market in Lahore on May 12, 2011.

A policeman adjusts a yellow police barrier tape cordoning off the site of a bomb blast in Nowshera district, northwest Pakistan on May 10, 2011. The explosion outside the district court in northwest Pakistan on Tuesday killed a female police constable and at least one other person, Pakistan's Dawn newspaper reported an official as saying. 

A man killed by a suicide bomb attack in Charsadda lies covered in the morgue of the Lady Reading hospital in Peshawar May 13, 2011. A suicide bomber on a motorcycle killed at least 69 people at a paramilitary force academy in northwest Pakistan on Friday, a police official said, in the first major attack since Osama bin Laden was killed in the country.

A girl screams while being treated for shrapnel wounds from a bomb attack in Peshawar, on February 2, 2011. A bomb exploded in a market on the outskirts of the northwestern city of Peshawar on Wednesday, killing at least nine people and destroying around 15 shops, government officials and witnesses said. Around 20 people were wounded.

Hindu devotees climb towards the crater of a mud volcano to perform a ritual offering of coconuts during a pilgrimage to the Shri Hinglaj Mata Temple in Pakistan's Balochistan province, on April 24, 2011. Thousands from Pakistan and India take part in the annual four-day pilgrimage to the temple, which is a revered site for Hindus. 

Pakistani fisherman Fida Khan, left, is helped by his son as he arranges a fishing net before high tide on a Karachi beach in Pakistan, on Monday, March 7, 2011. 

Pakistani children play with plastic guns in a street near Al-Qaeda chief Osama Bin Laden's final hideout as military and police kept the area cordoned off in 

A supporter of Pakistani religious party Jamaat-i-Islami prays during a rally to condemn the ban imposed on the burqa or veil in France, Tuesday, April 19, 2011, in Karachi, Pakistan.

A Sikh temple is seen decorated to celebrate the Baisakhi festival in Hasan Abdal, Pakistan, on Wednesday, April 13, 2011. The three-day Baisakhi festival of the Sikh community started at Gurdawara Punja Sahib with the participation of Sikhs from India, Pakistan and other countries. 

14-year-old Umar Fidai, a wounded suicide bomber whose explosive vest partially detonated, waits to be taken to a hospital after a suicide bombing at a shrine near Dera Ghazi Khan in Pakistan on Sunday, April 3, 2011. Taliban suicide bombers struck one of Pakistan's most important Sufi Muslim shrines on Sunday, killing at least 42 people and wounding over 100 who were celebrating the anniversary of its founder's death with music, meditation and other practices abhorred by Islamist militant groups, police said. Fidai later recovered, expressed regret and asked for forgiveness. He also claimed to have been recruited by the Taliban, and trained for six months with 300 other teenaged recruits in North Waziristan. 

People cross from Afghanistan into Pakistan at the border town of Chaman, Pakistan, Tuesday, Feb. 8, 2011. As many as 150,000 people cross daily between Afghanistan and Pakistan according to a Pakistani border official.

Suspected militants allegedly associated with Tehreek-e-Taliban or Taliban Movement are in police custody with their faces covered in Karachi, Pakistan, on Thursday, May 12, 2011. 

Pakistani boys play in a field at sunset, on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Tuesday, April 26, 2011.
Pakistan: A Country Wellcome to Anyone
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Pakistan(Northern Areas )
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A model presents creation by a local designer during a fashion week organized in Lahore, Pakistan, on Thursday, March 31, 2011.

Ramzan Ahmed, 70, stitches a soccer ball at a factory in Sialkot, on February 9, 2011. Pakistan's eastern city of Sialkot has been a major source of sports goods for international sports events for decades.

A child rests on a pile of oranges at a fruit market in Peshawar, on March 10, 2011.

Pakistani spectators watch a dog fighting tournament outside the village of Lora in Abbottabad District, northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, on February 27, 2011. Dog fighting and other forms of animal fighting are very common in rural areas of Pakistan where some 70 percent of the population of 170 million reside.

A devotee prays while standing in front of a bonfire at the shrine of Muslim saint Madhu Shah Lal Hussain in Lahore, on March 26, 2011. Hundreds of devotees are attending a three-day annual festival known as the festival of lamps to pay homage to the 16th century saint.(

A man stands guard on the roof of the Jamia Binoria Al-Almia as students below take part in religious examinations at the seminary in Karachi, on April 9, 2011. Nearly 2,300 students took part in the examinations at the madrasa to become religious scholars.

A man cleans the hoof of his donkey while waiting for shops to open at a market in Karachi, on April 18, 2011.

A Pakistani girl looks out of a Mosque's window during her daily Islamic religious class, in a slum area on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, on Tuesday, May 10, 2011.

Pakistani security officials at the site of bombing that occurred just outside the gate of a security force training school in Shabqadar near Peshawar, on May 13. The pair of explosions killed 80 people in a strike that the Taliban claimed was revenge for the death of Osama bin Laden.
Twin Bomb Blasts Kills Scores of Pakistan
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n vicinity, on May 7, 2011. 

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