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2011년 5월 13일 금요일

이짚트 세계문화유산과 풍경 1/2 : World Heritage in Egypt 1/2

최근에 무바라크 정권이 무너지며 민주화의 열망을 안은 과도 정부가 새로운 국가를 건설하기 위해 노력하고 있다. 이짚트의 찬란한 문화는 전세계에서 타의 추종을 불허하는 인류 문명의 발전을 주도하기도 하였다. 누구에게나 익숙한 피라미드, 스핑크스만 보아도 그 규모와 과학적 정교함은 현대의 과학도 이해하기가 힘들 정도로 높다. 유네스코가 지정한 세계문화 유적이 따라서 많다. 그 놀라운 현장을 당장이라도 달려가 보고 싶다. 그들의 문화 유산을 음미하자.
Egypt

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Tourists ride rented horses and camels at the historical site of the Giza Pyramids, near Cairo, Egypt. The pyramids are the only surviving structures from the original list of seven architectural marvels, and were named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2008

The Great Sphinx of Giza, a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue on the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo, is seen with the Chephren (Khafra) Pyramid in the background. The Great Sphinx is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians in the 3rd millennium B.C., somewhere between 2520 B.C. and 2494 B.C

The Sultan Hassan (R) and the Ar-Rifa'i (L) Mosques are seen in Islamic Cairo, Egypt. The Sultan Hassan Mosque was built between 1356 and 1363 A.D., during the time of Mamluk rule, with stones that historians believe were taken from one of the Great Pyramids of Giza.

The Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha is situated in the Citadel of Cairo and commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha between 1830 and 1848. This Ottoman mosque is the largest to be built in the first half of the 19th century. The mosque was built in memory of Tusun Pasha, Muhammad Ali's oldest son, who died in 1816.
The Egyptian Museum in Cairo is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world.
A golfer enjoys a game at the Oberoi House hotel and golfcourse near the Giza pyramid.
The Khan El-Khahili souk, the largest shopping area in Cairo
The Maidum pyramid stands on the desert's edge in Bein Sueif, 70 kilometers south of Cairo, and is the first Egyptian pyramid with an aboveground burial chamber. The raised tomb may represent an effort to raise the chamber closer to the sun god. The huge structure is surrounded by the debris from its collapsed casing.
Fort Quatbay is a 15th century defensive fortress located on the Mediterranean Sea coast in Alexandria, Egypt.
The famous Bibliotheque (library) in Alexandria, Egypt is a top attraction.
The steam ship "Sudan" cruises along the Nile towards Aswan, Egypt.
The Old Cataract Hotel is perched atop a hill overlooking the River Nile in Aswan, Egypt.
The Temple of Horus in Edfu is the second largest temple in Egypt after Karnak and one of the best preserved. It is dedicated to Horus, the falcon-headed god.
Tourists explore stone columns decorated with hieroglyphs at the Karnak temple site in Luxor. Few places in Egypt make a more overwhelming and lasting impression, than the apparent chaos of walls, obelisks, columns, statues, stelae and decorated blocks of the Ancient Egyptian Karnak temple complex.
A Pharaonic mural decorates the walls at the Karnak temple site in Luxor, Egypt. For the last 40 years, the Ancient Egyptian Karnak temple complex has been investigated and restored by a Franco-Egyptian archaeological team with admirable achievements.
Tourists visit the Colossi of Memnon, two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The twin figures stand in the Theban necropolis, across the Nile from the modern city of Luxor.
The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Luxor, Egypt, is built of limestone, rather than sandstone. The "Foremost of Noble Ladies" was the fifth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and reigned longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty
Construction on the Temple of Abu Simbel lasted for about 20 years, from 1244 B.C., until 1224 B.C. The monument is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Nubian Monuments", which run from Abu Simbel downriver to Philae (near Aswan).

According to UNESCO, World Heritage Site, Saint Catherines Monastery on the Sinai Penninsula, is the oldest working Christian monastery in the world

A tourist stands on one of the massive chalk rock formations created as a result of sandstorms, in the White Desert in Farafra, Egypt.

Camels look out to the Red Sea at Canyon Beach in Dahab. Camel diving safaris are a popular attraction in South Sinai.
The Red Sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species and 200 corals, and is the world's northernmost tropical sea. The Red Sea is a popular diving, snorkeling and swimming destination.
Tourists take a rest on a terrasse in King of Barhein Kingdom street, the main street of Sharm el Sheikh.

Egypt- Tourist Attractions
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Photo: Pyramids in the desert
From any angle, Giza's Pyramids inspire awe. Memorials to Egyptian kings, the Pyramids have risen above the desert outside Cairo for more than 4,000 years. Stone—not sun-dried mud brick—gave permanence to these ancient monuments.
Photo: Young boys racing camels in the desert
Young Bedouin boys race camels on Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. Tourism on Mount Sinai has been a boon to Bedouin, with some charging for camelback rides to the summit. Thousands of Bedouin live in the Sinai desert, where opportunities to earn cash are few.
Photo: Courtyard of a mosque with minarets
The shining floor of a central courtyard reflects the symmetry of the Al-Azhar mosque’s architectural features. The thousand-year-old Cairo mosque is connected to Al-Azhar University, one of the oldest in the world and a center for Sunni Islamic learning.
Photo: People inside a large mosque
An ornate chandelier and dome lamps illuminate the interior of the Turkish-style Muhammad Ali mosque. Built inside the Citadel, the former headquarters of Egypt’s rulers, the mosque honors the early 19th-century leader credited with bringing the nation and Cairo out of a medieval past.
Photo: View of rooftops and minarets
Viewed from atop a minaret, the Cairo skyline greets visitors with a fusion of religious tradition and modern realities. With over 11 million inhabitants in its metro area, the city that knew settlements as long as 6,000 years ago is presently the largest in the Middle East and Africa.
Photo: Car lights streaking across a bridge
Headlights streak across the Kasr El Nil (Palace of the Nile) bridge, which crosses the Nile River in Cairo. Guarded by bronze lions, the bridge was completed in its current form in 1933 and now lies at the center of an important tourism district.
Photo: A man dancing in colorful dress
A whirling dervish is framed by his colorful robes as he twirls. The traditional dance of the Sufi Muslim religious order is performed throughout the Arab world in local variations.
Photo: A white rock formation in the desert
A distinctive rock formation rises out of the desert in Bahariya Oasis. Located in Egypt’s Western Desert, Bahariya has yielded important dinosaur fossils and archaeological discoveries.
Photo: Visitors walking in a narrow canyon
Visitors navigate a narrow path through the Colored Canyon in the Sinai. Long both a holy land and battleground, the triangular peninsula’s historical sites and natural beauty today make Sinai a popular tourist destination.
Photo: A wall with hieroglyphs surrounded by water
The granite exterior wall of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina is lined with hieroglyphs and characters from 120 different languages. The research and intellectual center, opened in 2001, is located in the Eastern Harbor of Alexandria, near the site where archaeologists believe the ancient Library of Alexandria once stood.
Photo: Illuminated statues and temple ruins
Headless statues of Ramses II stand guard at the Luxor temple complex. Known to the ancients as Thebes, the city of Luxor now draws throngs of tourists to the Luxor and Karnak temples and the nearby Valley of the Kings necropolis, where Tutankhamun's tomb was found.
Photo: A boy, boat, and horse on a river shore
North of Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, a boy holds the reins of his horse as it drinks from the Nile River. In the early 1970s, the dam ushered in an era of water abundance for a country almost wholly dependent on the flow of the Nile.
Photo: Two Bedouin men and child in a tent
Members of a Bedouin tribe gather beneath a tent on Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. The desert herdsmen make up more than half of Sinai’s 360,000 or so people, yet mainland Egyptians are often at odds with the desert-dwelling tribes who have historically roamed vast territories.
Photo: Underwater view of fish and diver
A diver in the Red Sea approaches a school of juvenile barracuda. The sea’s fragile underwater ecosystem includes a thousand species of fish, coral reefs, and mangroves, and has helped to make the Sinai coast—including the popular resort city of Sharm el Sheikh—Egypt’s top tourist destination.
Photo: Illuminated tombs on riverbank
Sailboats drift past illuminated tombs in Aswan, Egypt. As the ancient gateway to Nubia, source of gold for the Egyptian monarchs, Aswan once held a key position in river commerce. Today, feluccas shuttle tourists to Aswan’s sights, just downstream from the High Dam.
Photo: A man standing in a shallow sea
The blue waters of the Gulf of Aqaba ripple between Saudi Arabia (far shore) and resorts lining the eastern coast of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. A historical site of spirituality and conflict, the wedge of desert has become a mecca for pleasure-loving travelers and profit-seeking developers.
A man gets a panoramic view of the volcanic and windblown peaks of the Black desert.

UNESCO World Heritage in Egypt


1.Abu Mena


The church, baptistry, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses and workshops in this early Christian holy city were built over the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria, who died in A.D. 296.
Abu Mena is located south of Alexandria, between Wadi el-Natrun and Alexandria itself. The church, baptistry, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses and workshops in this early Christian holy city were built over the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria, who died in AD 296.
Built in the 3rd century, the monastery commemorates an Alexandrine soldier, Menas, who was an officer in Diocletian's army. Menas refused to kill any Christian after his army won. He declared his Christianity publicly, which was a tremendous motive for other Christians to bear the suffering and abuse from Diocletian's army. Legend has it that Menas's remains were brought back from Phrygia by camel and were buried where the animal refused to walk any more. Water welled up in the desert at that spot, filling the area with vines and olive trees, as a result of which it is known as St Menas's Vineyards.
Archaeological excavations since 1900 have revealed that Abu Mena grew rapidly in the course of the 5th and 6th centuries. By 600 the oasis had become a pilgrimage city, centred on the great basilica complex. Archaeological excavations revealed an entire town with houses and cemeteries. They even found the house of the potters who made flasks, their shop, and the remains of some flasks, lamps and toys.
Built in the 5th century to accommodate the increasing number of Christian pilgrims, the Thermal Basilica used to store the curative waters used for the heated baths and pools surrounding the basilica. Pilgrims would fill small clay flasks (ampullae) with water from the basilica. The flasks were stamped with the seal of St Menas, showing the martyr standing between two kneeling camels. During the 5th and 6th centuries many buildings were erected around the Thermal Basilica, including a monastery on its north side.
The Basilica of Arcadius was built in the 5th century and is in the centre of a beautiful complex just south of Alexandria in Karm Abu Menas. Its roof is supported with 56 marble columns. The baptistry is located at the western end of the basilica with corners rounded in semicircular, polychrome marble niches. This is the only Coptic monument that shows the use of these elements in ancient Christian architecture. A church located at the west side of the basilica has strong Egyptian and Byzantine architectural influences.
St Menas is considered to be the best-known saint in the East and the West. That is evident by the fact that numerous ampullae have been discovered in many places around the world, including Heidelberg (Germany), Milan (Italy), Yugoslavia, Marseilles (France), Dengela (Sudan) and Jerusalem.

Agricultural runoff and seeping groundwater flows around surface structures at Abu Mena
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Christian Monastery in Abu Mena
Abu Mena Matyr Church
North Basilica

2.Ancient Thebes with Its Necropolis


Thebes, the city of the god Amon, was the capital of Egypt during the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms. With the temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, and the necropolises of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height.


Thebes contains the finest relics of the history, art and religion of ancient Egypt, of which it was the capital in its period of greatest splendour. Hundred of sovereigns, from pharaohs to Roman emperors, glorified the city with architecture, obelisks and sculpture. The exaltation of life found expression in the Thebes of the Living, identifiable in the fabulous site of Luxor and Karnak, on the right bank of the Nile, the site of the temples dedicated to the divine triad of Montu, Amon and Mut, while the celebration of death took shape in the Thebes of the Dead.
From the Middle Kingdom to the end of the ancient era, the city was sacred to the god Amon, the supreme Sun God: temples of incomparable splendour and size were dedicated to him. The temple of Luxor, built by Amenophis III and Ramesses II, was connected to the great sanctuary of Karnak by a long triumphal boulevard lined by sphinxes that led to its entrance, preceded by a pair of obelisks made from pink granite.
The entrance to the temple is adorned with scenes from the Syrian and Hittite military campaign and leads to the great courtyard of Ramesses II and to the chapel that served as a storehouse for the boats, dedicated to the triad of Amon, the father, Mut, the mother, represented in the form of a vulture or a lion, and Khonsu, the lunar son of the couple. The second complex, with a magnificent and immense entrance and colonnade, a courtyard, and a hall crowned with tall columns, was built at the command of Amenophis III.
About 3 km from Luxor is the monumental complex of Karnak, composed of three temples, one of which is consecrated to Mut, one to the warrior god Montu, and one to Amon. The building dedicated to the father of the gods is the product of a series of ingenious project of expansion and renovation ordered by Pharaohs eager to leave behind marvellous testimonials to their reign: the immense courtyard at the centre of which stands the enormous aedicule of Taharqa; the portico of Bubastis; the temple of Sethi II; the colossi of the pharaohs Thutmosis III and Ramesses I and II; the great hypostyle hall with 134 colossal columns; the six monumental entrances; the granite pillars and obelisk; the rooms decorated with religious and military scenes and the hall of the botanical garden; the sacred lake flanked by storehouses; the temple dedicated to the hippopotamus goddess Opet, placed on the site in which she is said to have given birth to Osiris; and finally the Southern Propylaea, four portals adorned with bas-reliefs, columns, obelisks and colossi, which adorned the sacred way that led to the Temple of Mut.
On the opposite bank of the river there grew up over centuries the Thebes of the Dead. For almost 15 centuries, great funerary temples were built at the foot of the hills. They were entirely separate from their corresponding tombs, which were dug into the mountains, safe from violation and tomb robbers. To the north were built the Temple of Qurna al Gedida, dedicated to Amon-Re, and the temple consecrated to Hathor, the goddess of sweetness and joy who was venerated in the form of a cow. It was commissioned by Queen Hatshepsut for herself and her father Thutmosis I.
Even better known is the magnificent funerary Temple of Ramesses II, a building situated at the edge of cultivated fields which, because of its courtyards, sacraria filled with statues, decorations and colossi, was admired by many ancient writers. All that remains of the temple of Amenophis III are the colossi of Memnon, two impressive quartz monoliths that depict the pharaoh sitting on his throne, accompanied by the figures of his mother and his wife.
The tombs of the pharaohs and of their dignitaries, priests and princesses are instead hidden in the bowels of the mountains and form the great cemeteries of al-Asasif, al-Khokha, Qurnet Mura, Deir al-Medina, the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. Among the underground tombs of the Valley of Kings, the British explorers Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter found in 1922 a small tomb that soon became the most renowned in Egypt, that of the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun
Thebes Ancient EgyptHatshepsut Mortuary Temple, West Bank of Luxor
Hatshepsut Temple
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Deir al-bahari (the northern monastery) is a collection of mortuary temples on the niles west bank - the most famous and complete of these is the temple of hatshepsut, built into the cliff - face the temple though still impressive has lost a lot of the features that it once had including many statues and the gardens that once beautified the long ramps
Osirid is the term given to the style of pillars, usually in an open court, in ancient egypt that would have a colossal statue at the front of it
here the statues are in the classical pose - crossed arms holding the ankh, the key of life
Although mostly monotone in appearance now originally the temples would have been very garishly painted in blue, green,red, yellow, black and white using a mixture of pigments, vegetable oil and a glue mix
the statues at hatshepsuts temple have retained some of the red ochre in places
Hatshepsuts temple has many sanctuarys the uppermost and central one being to amun the highest of the gods

The 30 metre high obelisk of hatshepsut was covered completely with surrounding walls by later kings in an attempt to erase the legacy of hatshepsut
Hatshepsut Mortuary


Horus usually depicted as a falcon or falcon headed was a favourite amongst the egyptians with many versions of his story and status - the son osiris / son of geb and nut etc in most cases he was known as a patron saint of the pharaoh, which explains his prescence at a lot of temples, pharaohs themselves were known as 'the living horus'

The cult of horus, usually depiceted with a human body and a falcons head, lasted the whole length of the anciebt egyptian civilisation. during theses 10,000 years he took many forms and associations the most popular and widespread being that of the sun god

Close up of heiroglyphs at the right hand side lower tier of hatshepsuts temple - you can see what a riot of colour these monuments would have been 3000 years ago

Hourus as ra, the falcon headed sun god typified with the sun disc above his head - the merging of gods over the centuries has complicated the understanding of these beliefs and has led to some major contradictions in the heiroglyphs

Although most records of hatshepsut were destroyed or defaced following her death, heiroglyphics at her temple show some impressive aspects of her reign - the trade routes to punt (somalia) and the transportation of her two obelisks to karnak.
The Valley of the Kings
Ancient Thebes with Its Necropolis
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The Valley of Kings, west bank of Luxor
Kings Valley 1/2
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Kings Valley 2/2
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Tutankhamun and Ankhesnamun

Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari

The mosque in the Luxor temple

Second pylon, Luxor Temple


Hypostyle Hall, Karnak

Hypostle halls colorful mantles



Karnak Column



Napoleon was Here

Second Pylon and the avenue of the Sphinxes, Karnak

One of the thousands of well preserved reliefs & hieroglphs that adorn the temple of karnak

Statue at the karnak temple depicted the god amun and dedicated by tutankhamun, it is believed that the features are that of the boy king

A criosphinx - one of over 900 that originally lined the karnak temple
Karnak Temple
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Statue of a pharaoh wearing the crowns of upper and lower egypt, behind are still coloured painted hieroglyphs


The statues, temples and hieroglyphs from ancient eygpt all served a purpose in either preparing for the afterlife, worshipping gods or intimadating rivals, viewed just on its asthetic merits however the craftmanship is absolutley astounding and the peices a work of art.
Inside the great court of the precinct of amun-re stands the huge statue of ramesses II. the great court was used during the pet festivals and was the only part of the temple accessible to the general public of thebes.
Outside the temple of ramesses III stand two statues of the pharaoh, most ancient statues show the same physical attributes and age to the subject, often it is only the cartouche that will give an identity to the statue
Medinet Habu(Ramesses III) Temple
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Statues in varying states inside the great court, the court would have at one time been on the outside of the temple and is the only area in which the people of thebes were allowed access.
The ram headed sphinxes were moved following construction of the great court
the columns behind show how the egyptians worked while building - the nearer ones are a lot smoother but still not faced off and contain no heiroglyphs, the furthest columns are still very rough and crude in appearance
The karnak temple is the most complicated of all egypts temples as it was developed over many centuries
The ram headed sphinx at karnak temple represented the god amon, the line of statues would have originally led to the diverted nile that served karnak
It was ramesses II who added the ram headed sphinx to the karnak temple, his own statue stands between the front legs of its guardian
Building work in ancient egyptian temples began with the sanctuary and then subsequent work would be added - often by many generations, the result is that the 'enterance' will usually be the most recent build. the karnak temples first pylon like many other temples remains unfinished (the stone has not been faced off & no heiroglyphs are present)
It is hard not to be in awe of the high standard of craftsmanship on the numerous reliefs and hyroglphs in the many temples - especially considering the primative copper tools used for chisseling.
the buildings and bricklaying themselves are also so accurate that they stand up to todays standards despite all the technological advancements that have been made
Detail of a wall in which amenhoteps III's eygptian hieroglphic reliefs can be seen to be plastered over and replaced with painted roman christian images
The romans converted the south sanctuary end of luxor temple into a christian shrine - amenhoteps reliefs were plastered and painted over with christian themed fresco's, alaxender the great who also altered this section of the temple during his reign was canny enough to have himself depicted as an egyptian
Amenhotep II (1402 - 1364 bc) began thebuilding of the luxor temple, his impressive colonnade and the walls of his court depict the scenes of celebrations during the opet festivals.
Ramesses II is one of the greatest rulers the world has ever seen. the son of seti, he bacame the 3rd ruler in the 19th dynasty at a young age and reigned until his death at 96 - an age which had most believing he was a god. he fought and won many wars, signed treatys to ensure egypts peace and fathered 96 sons and 60 daughters to 200 wives. ramesses continued and embellished fantastic temples including karnaks hypostle hall & luxor temple and went on to build the astounding abu simbel and his own ramasseum
Ramessesum(Luxor)
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Close up of the seated ramesses II statue in his courtyard at luxor temple, the cartouche is visible on his right shoulder
The seated ramesses II at the luxor temple, amongst the hieroglyphs surrounding the statue its interesting to note that his enemies and those he has defeated are depicted underneath him- this is quite common and often they will also be portrayed upside down
The seated ramesses II at the luxor temple, amongst the hieroglyphs surrounding the statue its interesting to note that his enemies and those he has defeated are depicted underneath him- this is quite common and often they will also be portrayed upside down
The tuthmosis III and hapshetsut triple shrine to amun , mut and khonsu. as usual ramesses II rebuilt and rededicated the shrine during his long reign
The tuthmosis III and hapshetsut triple shrine to amun , mut and khonsu. as usual ramesses II rebuilt and rededicated the shrine during his long reign
Work on the temple began under the pharaoh amenhotep III, the monument was added to by tutankhamun, horemheb, ramesses II and alexander the great almost one thousand years later
The 25 metre tall obelisk was one of a matching pair, its match was sent to paris in 1833 as a gift where it now stands in the place de la concorde. in return france gifted eygpt with a clock that adorns cairo's citadel - but has not worked since soon after it arrived
The first pylon of the luxor temple is 24 metres tall built, of course, by ramesses II and features depictions of his succesful battles and campaigns - particularly the battle of kadesh.
Luxor Temple
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Luxor Sphinxes
The avenue of sphinxes connected the temple of luxor with the karnak temple - a distance of 3 km it was down this processional route that the statue of amun was annually marched on its way to luxor temple to be reunited with his consort mut and her son khonsu
known as the opet festival, this would be a time of festivals and a carnival atmosphere would abound in thebes
An androsphinx - human head on a lions body, one of thousands that led out from luxor temple
Originally there were six huge statues of ramessses II outside the luxor temple, the four standing figures have long gone leaving only the remaining two seated figures
Probably the most photographed statue in luxor - as cameras are not permitted inside the museum, photo junkies get there fix on the artefacts in the museums garden
Howard carters residence on the niles west bank a short distance from the valley of the kings where he made his discovery of the hidden tomb of tutankhamun
The enterance to kv - the tomb of ramesses IV. tombs are open to the public on a rotation system so that each tomb will recieve a well earnt off season spell to help preserve and restore the ancient decor, for your admission price you can chose 3 of the open tombs to go to inside.
Valley of the Queen: Located on the west bank of the Nile a short distance from the valley of the kings. there are around 75 - 80 tombs here mostly queens of the 18th, 19th & 20th dynasties although many children were also buried in the tombs  here
Nefertari Tomb
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Nefetari was the principle wife of ramesses II - he had 8 in all, she married him age 13 when ramesses was only 15 and was not yet pharaoh
the temple that was built for her at abu simbel and her depiction in statues as being the same size as ramesses confirm the power and respect the queen had, its quite probable she as even deified during her lifetime


Thebes Tombs 1/2
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Thebes Tombs 2/2
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