2016년 1월 16일 토요일

제1차 걸프 전쟁 후 25년: Operation Desert Storm: 25 Years Since the First Gulf War

On January 16, 1991, President George H. W. Bush announced the start of what would be called Operation Desert Storm—a military operation to expel occupying Iraqi forces from Kuwait, which Iraq had invaded and annexed months earlier. For weeks, a U.S.-led coalition of two dozen nations had positioned more than 900,000 troops in the region, most stationed on the Saudi-Iraq border. A U.N.-declared deadline for withdrawal passed on January 15, with no action from Iraq, so coalition forces began a five-week bombardment of Iraqi command and control targets from air and sea. Despite widespread fears that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein might order the use of chemical weapons, a ground invasion followed in February. Coalition forces swiftly drove Iraq from Kuwait, advancing into Iraq, and reaching a cease-fire within 100 hours—controversially leaving Saddam Hussein in power. While coalition casualties were in the hundreds, Iraqi losses numbered in the tens of thousands.
  • A destroyed Iraqi tank rests near a series of oil-well fires during the Gulf War, on March 9, 1991, in northern Kuwait. 
    David Longstreath / AP
  • French soldiers from the Foreign Legion Infantry regiment in the Saudi desert near Hafr al-Batin, wear full chemical warfare equipment during a training session during the Gulf War on October 26, 1990. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • Responding to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, troops of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division deploy across the Saudi desert on November 4, 1990, during preparations prior to the Gulf War. 
    Greg English / AP
  • Cazenovia College students Amy Acker, of Rochester, left, and Sandra Ceplo, of Afton, comfort a tearful Megan Murray, of Mechanicville, center, while placing yellow bows and ribbons on campus in Cazenovia, New York, on January 15, 1991. Scores of students, many with loved ones serving in the Persian Gulf decorated buildings, trees and bushes with ribbon in honor and support of U.S. troops. 
    Michael J. Okoniewski / AP
  • U.S. President George H. W. Bush adjusts paperwork in the Oval Office of the White House on January 16, 1991 in Washington following his statement concerning the U.S. attack of Iraq. The president said, “The world could wait no longer,” for U.S. action. 
    Doug Mills / AP
  • Rebecca Spice, a tourist from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is flanked by Joel Kopischke, left, and Robert Simonson, both of New York, as they read a bulletin edition of the New York Post reporting the outbreak of hostilities in the Persian Gulf in New York’s Times Square on January 17, 1991. 
    Michael Albans / AP
  • Boston University freshman Christopher Cooley raises his fists before a U.S. flag in support of news that the U.S. forces had started military actions against Iraq, during a demonstration at the Statehouse in Boston on January 17, 1991. 
    Gayle Shomer / AP
  • Sergeant Rachel Forehand, from Brooklyn, New York, rests her head on a stuffed bear as the U.N. deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait passed in Saudi Arabia on January 16, 1991. Forehand is a nurse with 28th Combat Support Hospital, stationed at Fort Bragg. N.C. She and other members of her unit were waiting for a plane carry them to a forward base. 
    Bob Daugherty / AP
  • Anti-aircraft fire following an air attack by allied aircraft enforcing the U.N. resolution early on January 18, 1991, in Baghdad, Iraq. 
  • Anti-aircraft tracer lights up downtown Baghdad, in a January 17, 1991 photograph as U.S. Air Force bombers and cruise missiles attack Baghad during the Gulf War. Twenty-five years ago warplanes from the U.S.-led alliance screeched over Kuwait early on January 17, 1991, signalling the start of the Gulf War which ended Iraq's occupation six weeks later. 
    Patrick de Noirmont / Reuters
  • Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, left, appears at a war briefing at the Pentagon on January 17, 1991 announcing loss of an American warplane in the attack on Iraq. At right is General Colin Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 
    Dennis Cook / AP
  • A U.S. soldier and Saudi police officers examine the wreckage of a missile, believed to be a Soviet-made Scud, which landed in downtown Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on January 22, 1991 when Iraq launched a missile attack on the Saudi capital. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • A crowd estimated in the tens of thousands makes its way down Market Street in San Francisco, on January 19, 1991, while protesting the United States attack on Iraq and Kuwait. 
    Eric Risberg / AP
  • Soldiers, hotel workers and others, some wearing gas masks, kneel for morning prayers on January 18, 1991, in a basement used as a bomb shelter at a hotel in eastern Saudi Arabia. A Scud missile fired by Iraq had reportedly been intercepted and destroyed by a Patriot missile earlier in the day.
    J. Scott Applewhite / AP
  • A column of U.S. Marine Amphibious Tracked Vehicles moves north across the desert in Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War on February 17, 1991. 
    Sadayuki Mikami / AP
  • French special-forces commandos capture Iraqi soldiers somewhere in Iraqi desert on February 26, 1991. 
    Mike Nelson / AFP / Getty
  • An Iraqi tank goes up in flames after being hit by a TOW missile fired form the U.S. Army’s 82nd Airborne Division, in Iraq on February 27, 1991. 
    Tannen Maury / AP
  • A Kuwaiti helicopter herds Iraqi prisoners of war, arms in the air, across a stream in southeastern Kuwait, on February 25, 1991. 
  • A young Iraqi boy carried a plate of sausage in the ruins of houses in an area west of Al-Ahrar Bridge, Baghdad, on February 20, 1991, after a recent allied bombing raid. 
    John Rice / AP
  • Three British soldiers in full combat and gas gear wait for the all-clear signal in a hotel lobby in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, during a Scud attack onFebruary 26, 1991. The three wait under the portraits of the present and former Saudi monarchs. 
    J. Scott Applewhite / AP
  • The body of an Iraqi soldier lies in a sandy ditch on the outskirts of Kuwait City on February 27, 1991, after being killed as coalition forces moved in to liberate the city. 
    Laurent Rebours / AP
  • Somewhere in Iraqi desert, U.S soldiers guard captured Iraqi prisoners of war on February 25, 1991. 
    Mike Nelson / AFP / Getty
  • A wounded Ken Kozakiewicz, left, cries after being given the dogtags and learning of the death of a fellow tank crewman, in the bodybag at right, in this February 28, 1991 photo. The widely published photo came to define the Persian Gulf war for many. At right is wounded comrade Michael Santarakis. The soldiers were from the 24th Mechanized Infantry Division. 
    David Turnley / AP
  • A U.S. soldier stands night guard as oil wells burn in the distance in Kuwait, just south of the Iraqi border on February 26, 1991. 
    Andy Clark / Reuters
  • Residents of Tanuma in the Iraqi province of Basra stand guard over captured Iraqi military personnel in March of 1991. 
  • A satellite communications antenna destroyed during Operation Desert Storm. 
    U.S. Department of Defense / Tech. Sgt. Joe Coleman
  • U.S. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, left, escorts Iraqi Lt. General Sultan Hashim Ahmad, third from left, with other Iraqi military leaders to a tent prior to the start of a meeting to set the terms for a permanent ceasefire. The meeting took place at an airbase in Safwan, Iraq, on March 3, 1991. 
  • An Iraqi sits huddled in a barbed wire holding area at a U.S. checkpoint some 25 miles south of Basra, on March 28, 1991 in Iraq, after he and four others were arrested by U.S. soldiers for allegedly robbing and murdering refugees. Four members of the five-member gang were armed and all were carrying a “considerable amount of money” according to U.S. officials. 
    Peter Dejong / AP
  • U.S. soldiers returning from the Gulf make telephone calls at New York's Kennedy Airport on March 8, 1991. The soldiers, tired after their 14-hour flight via Rome, flashed “victory” signs as they stepped off planes to the sound of cheering airline employees, and an Army band that played “God Bless America.” 
    Bebeto Matthews / AP
  • A long line of vehicles, including destroyed Iraqi Army Russian-made T-62 tanks and trucks stand abandoned by fleeing Iraqi troops on the outskirts of Kuwait City, on March 1, 1991, after the Allied troops liberated the capital of Kuwait. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • A devastated convoy of vehicles on a highway north of Kuwait City is visible in this aerial photo made on March 1, 1991, during the Gulf War. Iraqi forces fleeing the city in every available vehicle were intercepted by allied forces and destroyed. 
    Sadayuki Mikami / AP
  • The bodies of dead Iraqi soldiers hang from a truck abandoned by fleeing Iraqi army on the road in North-Eastern Kuwait, leading to Iraq, on March 11, 1991. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • Several blown-out wells damaged by retreating Iraqi soldiers in Al-Ahmadi oil-field burn on April 1, 1991, in southern Kuwait. Iraqi troops retreating after a seven-month occupation, smashed and torched 727 wells, badly polluting the atmosphere and creating crude oil lakes. In addition, up to eight billion barrels of oil were split into the sea by Iraqi forces damaging marine life and coastal areas up to 400 kilometers (250 miles) away. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • A Fighter Squadron 114 (VF-114) F-14A Tomcat aircraft flies over an oil well set ablaze by Iraqi troops during Operation Desert Storm. 
    U.S. Department of Defense / Lt. Steve Gozzo
  • The effects of Iraqi troops setting fire to the oil wells in Kuwait during February 1991, is captured in this near-vertical photograph of the northwestern end of the Persian Gulf taken on April 7, 1991. The black smoke plumes of more than 700 individual oil-well fires are being blown by the wind. Kuwait City is visible at center-left (north is to the right in this rotated image). 
  • Geysers of flame and thick, toxic smoke spew forth on March 10, 1991, from just a few of the hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells set afire by fleeing Iraqi troops. 
    Greg Gibson / AP
  • Red Adair’s fire-fighting crews at work on April 1, 1991, beside a blown-out well damaged by retreating Iraqi soldiers in Al-Ahmadi oil field in southern Kuwait. 
    Pascal Guyot / AFP / Getty
  • Several blown-out wells damaged by retreating Iraqi soldiers in Al-Ahmadi oil field burn on June 5, 1991, in southern Kuwait. 
    Michel Gangne / AFP / Getty

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