2011년 12월 10일 토요일

개기 일식, 월식: Total Eclipse of Moon

Total eclipse of moon

Photographer John Harrison captured this view of the Dec. 10 total solar eclipse above San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge

Humza Mehbub sent this composite image of the lunar eclipse from Lahore, Pakistan. The multiple exposures show Earth's shadow creeping across the moon's disk from 5:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. in Lahore, when the eclipse hit its peak.

Anthony Citrano, a fashion photographer from Venice, Calif., captured this pre-dawn view of the eclipse as seen over Malibu and the Santa Monica Mountains

Cartographer Michael Zeiler sent in this composite photo that captures the last partial stages of the lunar eclipse as seen from Los Alamos, N.M. "Total lunar eclipse began two minutes after sunrise where I live," Zeiler wrote. "I tried to capture a photograph of the selenelion, but missed it by a couple of minutes." 

The lunar eclipse competes with the bright lights of Las Vegas in this photo from Jim Werle.

JoAnne and Michael Schnyder sent this picture of the partial eclipse from Cape Verde, Ariz. This was the view at 6:45 a.m. MT, at a stage when Earth's shadow hadn't yet completely covered the moon's disk but you could already make out the reddish eclipse glow.

For some observers in the western U.S., the eclipse provided the seemingly impossible opportunity to catch the sunrise and the moonset simultaneously - a phenomenon known as "selenelion." Adam Gray sent in these two photos that show the brightening sunrise sky in the east and the darkening moon in the west. "The marine layer started to roll in right at about the time of totality," Gray wrote.

A lunar eclipse is seen framed within Turret Arch at Arches National Park near Moab, Utah, on Dec. 10. This total lunar eclipse, which occurs when Earth gets directly between the moon and the sun, will be the last of its kind until April 2014.

Slices of image data from a series of DMSP satellite overpasses were assembled to create this picture of Earth before, during and after a total lunar eclipse on Feb. 20, 2008. The earlier overpasses are toward the right. The middle slice shows how Earth's night side looked during the partial phase, and the slice just to the left shows Earth's appearance during the total phase of the eclipse. The leftmost slices reflect how Earth looked after the eclipse.

This photo combination shows the different stages of the moon during Saturday's lunar eclipse as seen from the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles.

A lunar eclipse and the Hollywood sign are seen from the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles.

The earth's shadow falls on the moon as it undergoes a total lunar eclipse above the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia on Dec. 11 local time.

A partial lunar eclipse is seen near the Tokyo Tower on Dec. 10. People across Japan were in the prime viewing zone for the total eclipse.

The moon turns red as the earth passes between the moon and the sun during the total lunar eclipse, as seen from Tokyo.

The moon looms in partial eclipse, framed by an arch at Rome's ancient Colosseum on Wednesday.

The moon rises over the Israeli coastal city of Tel Aviv before a total lunar eclipse.

A partially eclipsed moon rises into the skies over Belgrade, Serbia, on Wednesday.

A partial lunar eclipse is seen over the village of Zejtun, lit up for its parish church feast of Saint Catherine, in the south of Malta on Wednesday.

This sequence of images shows the progress of the lunar eclipse as seen from Tel Aviv.

A lunar eclipse is seen through the Atomium monument in Brussels, which was built for a world's fair in 1958.

The lunar eclipse looms over the Castel dell Ovo (Egg Castle) in Naples, Italy.

Malaysian government officials peer at the eclipsed moon through telescopes in Putrajaya early Thursday,

A total eclipse of the Moon

This combination of pictures shows the moon in various stages of a total lunar eclipse as seen from Mexico City on Dec. 21. This eclipse takes place just hours before the December solstice, which marks the northern winter and the southern summer.

A double expousure picture shows the moon and the monument of The Savior of The World during a total lunar eclipse as seen from San Salvador, El Salvador on Dec. 21.

Space shuttle Discovery waits to roll back from Launch Pad 39A to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in the early morning hours of Dec 21, with the beginning of the total lunar eclipse clearly in view.
Once inside the VAB, Discovery's external fuel tank will be examined and foam reapplied where 89 sensors were installed on the tank's aluminum skin for an instrumented tanking test on Dec. 17. The sensors were used to measure changes in the tank as super-cold propellants were pumped in and drained out. Data and analysis from the test will be used to determine what caused the tops of two, 21-foot-long support beams, called stringers, on the outside of the intertank to crack during fueling on Nov. 5. Discovery's next launch opportunity is no earlier than Feb. 3, 2011.

This combo of photos shows, left, the full moon behind clouds and, right, the earth's shadow casting over the moon a few minutes later during a lunar eclipse on early Dec. 21, seen from the northeastern German town of Petersdorf.

The moon on its way to being totally eclipsed is seen with the Chrysler Building in the foreground in New York, Tuesday, Dec. 21. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth casts its shadow on the full moon, blocking the sun's rays that otherwise reflect off the moon's surface.

A halo or icebow appears around the moon in the sky above a home in the Bronx borough of New York City Dec. 20. The phenomenon is caused by the refraction of the light of the moon by ice crystals in the air.

The moon is seen over a Christmas tree during a total lunar eclipse as seen from San Jose, Dec. 21.

The Washington Monument as the full moon is shadowed by the Earth during a total lunar eclipse on the arrival of the winter solstice, Dec. 21 in Washington D.C. From beginning to end, the eclipse lasted about three hours and twenty-eight minutes.

The volcano Teide is pictured on Dec. 21 during a total lunar eclipse, in the National Park of Teide on the Spanish Canary Island of Tenerife.

The Moon is engulfed in the Earth's shadow as it nears the peak of a rare winter solstice total lunar eclipse as viewed through a telescope from Palm Beach Gardens Dec. 21.

Holiday calendar: How an eclipse dims Earth

Half of Earth is in position to watch the moon go dark on Saturday during the last total lunar eclipse until 2014 — but what would someone watching Earth see? You can get a good idea from this montage, assembled from images captured by the Defense Meteorogical Satellite Program's F16 satellite.
The picture consists of different slices of our planet's surface, seen at different times before, during and after a total lunar eclipse on Feb. 20, 2008. The rightmost slices show the earliest times, when moonlight was shining down from the full moon and lighting up the clouds in Earth's atmosphere. The middle slice shows the cloud cover growing dimmer as the partial phase of the eclipse progresses. The slice just to the left of that one shows the view during the total phase. Because the moon is in Earth's shadow, no moonlight was being reflected by the clouds. The only illumination you can see is provided by the city lights of North and Central America.
By the time the next slice of image data was recorded, the eclipse had ended, and moonlight was once again lighting up the clouds. To learn more about the temporary blackout, consult this explanation from NASA's Earth Observatory website.
A similar phenomenon will occur again on Saturday. But in my judgment, the view from Earth looking up at the moon is far cooler than the view from space looking down at Earth's darkness. Prime viewing is available from Asia and the Pacific, and the western U.S. and Canada will get in on most of the action. Residents of the eastern U.S. will have to watch over the Internet, however. Totality begins at 9:06 a.m. ET (6:06 a.m. PT, 14:06 GMT) and is due to last 51 minutes. For the full story, check out our viewer's guide.
If you get a picture of the eclipse, will you please share it with us? Feel free to use our FirstPerson upload tool, or post it to Facebook, Flickr or YouTube and let me know about it via the Cosmic Log Facebook page. We'll put together a smorgasbord of eclipse pics on Saturday.
This picture serves not only as a warmup for the eclipse, but also as today's offering from the Cosmic Log Space Advent Calendar, which features imagery of Earth as seen from space every day from now until Christmas. Check back on Saturday for another "treat" from the calendar, and feast your eyes on these previous offerings:

  • The full Cosmic Log Space Advent Calendar
  • Dec. 1: An ornament in outer space
  • The moon hangs over Earth's limb like a holiday ornament in a picture from the International Space Station.
  • Dec. 2: The masses in Mecca
  • Worshipers crowd around the Kaaba shrine in the Saudi city of Mecca, venerated as the most sacred site in Islam, in a satellite picture from DigitalGlobe. The image was captured from orbit on Nov. 2, just before the beginning of the annual Hajj pilgrimage. During the Hajj, millions of Muslims walk counterclockwise seven times around the Kaaba.
  • A glowing laser shines forth from the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile, in a picture captured by ESO Photo Ambassador Gerhard Hüdepohl. The beam energizes sodium atoms high in Earth’s mesosphere, causing them to glow and creating a bright dot that looks like a star to observers on the ground. That artificial star serves as a guide for the telescope's adaptive optics system.
  • Sunlight is refracted by different layers of the atmosphere on Earth's planetary horizon, with the moon hanging in space far beyond. The picture was taken from the International Space Station on July 31 and published on Nov. 26.
  • Four Saturnian moons, from tiny to huge, make an appearance amid the planet's rings in this composition from the Cassini orbiter, released Oct. 24. Bright Dione is in the foreground, with Titan in the background. The dot just to the right of Saturn's nearly edge-on rings is Pandora, and Pan is just a speck embedded within the rings, to the left of Titan and Dione.
    Science editor Alan Boyle's Weblog: The Cassini mission to Saturn has done it again, with a beautifully composed picture of the planet's rings and four of its moons.
  • About 2,400 massive stars in the center of the Tarantula Nebula, also known as 30 Doradus, are producing intense radiation and powerful winds as they blow off material. Multimillion-degree gas detected in X-rays (blue) by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory comes from the shock fronts formed by these stellar winds and by supernova explosions. This hot gas carves out gigantic bubbles in the surrounding cooler gas and dust, shown here in infrared emissions detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope (orange). This composite image of the nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud was released on Nov. 10.
  • Dec. 3: Santa's shrinking domain
  • These Arctic sea ice images represent real data captured by the AMSR-E instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The top image is from March 7, when sea ice reached its maximum extent this year, near the end of winter. The bottom image is from Sept. 9, around the time sea ice reached its minimum extent this year.
  • Dec. 4: The monster of Madagascar
  • An image from Japan's ALOS satellite shows the estuary of the Betsiboka River, the largest river in Madagascar, flowing into Bombetoka Bay, which then opens into the Madagascar Channel. The picture was taken on Sept. 17, 2010, by the satellite's Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR-2).
  • Dec. 5: Antarctica stripped naked
  • This graphic shows the bedrock beneath Antarctic ice. The color scale goes from 2,250 meters below sea level (blue) to 2,250 meters above sea level (red).
  • This graphic provides a sidelong perspective on the Antarctic bedrock, looking inward from the Antarctic Peninsula toward the center of the continent.
  • Dec. 6: Streaking for home
  • A Nov. 22 view from the International Space Station shows a docked Russian Progress cargo ship in the upper foreground as well a Soyuz spacecraft heading down for a landing. The Soyuz's blazing atmospheric re-entry is indicated by the thin bright streak in the lower half of the picture.
  • Dec. 7: Pearl Harbor from above, 1941-2011
  • A satellite picture of Pearl Harbor, acquired by the GeoEye-1 satellite on Sept. 24, shows the USS Missouri docked at Battleship Row as a museum ship, with its bow pointing toward the USS Arizona memorial at lower right. The wreck of the Arizona can be seen below the white memorial, barely visible beneath the water's surface.
  • This aerial photograph of Pearl Harbor's Battleship Row was captured on Dec. 10, 1941, after the Japanese attack. The sunken USS California is at upper left. The capsized Oklahoma and the Maryland are at left center, the sunken West Virginia and the lightly damaged Tennessee are at lower center, The sunken Arizona is at lower right, in the same position where it lies today. Dark streaks of oil stream from the damaged vessels.
  • Dec. 8: The rise and fall of the Dead Sea
  • A multispectral view from the ASTER imager on NASA's Terra satellite shows salt evaporation ponds in the southern Dead Sea as of 2006.
  • A mosaic of Google Earth satellite imagery from this spring shows the salt evaporation ponds in the southern Dead Sea.
Solar Eclipse darkens Black Friday

The moon's disk takes a bite out of the sun during Friday's partial solar eclipse, as seen from Invercargill in New Zealand. The last of 2011's four solar eclipses was visible only from an area in southern latitudes taking in New Zealand, Tasmania, South Africa and Antarctica.

The partially eclipsed sun can be seen through a filter held in front of a seventh-floor window in Invercargill. Appropriate safety protection, such as specially designed solar filters, should always be used when gazing at the sun, even during a partial eclipse.

Marvel at the 'Midnight Sun' Eclipse

Photographer Bjornar G. Hansen captured this view of Wednesday's partial solar eclipse from the island of Kvaloya in arctic Norway, using a Nikon D3 camera.

The partially eclipsed sun shines through clouds over Brensholmen in the Norwegian Arctic, in a view captured by photographer Bernt Olsen.

Clouds made for a challenging view of the partial solar eclipse from Brensholmen.

Bernt Olsen says the partial solar eclipse finally peeked out from behind the clouds, allowing him to capture this view from Brensholmen in the Norwegian Arctic, using a Nikon D90 with a Sigma 70-300 lens and a "self-made" Baader film-filter.

Svetlana Kulkova took this picture of the eclipse through the smog and fog hanging over the Russian city of Bratsk, using a Canon EOS 500D with a 55-200mm lens.

The partial solar eclipse looms over the landscape of Changchun in Cina's Jilin Province.

The partially eclipsed sun is partially obscured by haze at the horizon in this view from Changchun.

This is one of a series of pictures taken from Sallatunturi, a resort in the Finnish region of Lapland. "It was the first night to observe the midnight sun, and then there was also the eclipse!" photographer B. Art Braafhart said in a note to SpaceWeather.com. "Almost perfect circumstances with some clouds. The sun tipped the horizon at the moment that the moon was covering the sun for the maximum what could be seen from my observation point. With two beautiful 'cat eyes' just above the horizon as a result."

Midnight sun eclipse. Time-lapse 1080p HD from Eivind Kolstad on Vimeo.
 Check out this time-lapse video of the eclipse, as captured by Eivind Kolstad from Norway. "Most of the world will never experience the midnight sun eclipse," Kolstad writes. "Scandinavia is the only densely populated area in the world where the midnight sun eclipse can be experienced."

A March 29 image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captures a "space eclipse," in which Earth's disk obscures part of the sun.

Belgian astrophotographer Thierry Legault's picture of Tuesday's partial solar eclipse also shows the International Space Station passing over the sun's disk.

Partial solar eclipse shines over Mideast, Europe

The partial solar eclipse in Locon, northern France, Jan. 4. A solar eclipse happens when the Moon swings between the Earth and the Sun.

A man watches a partial solar eclipse through a filter in Galyateto, some 62 miles east of Budapest, Jan. 4.

A seagull is silhouetted against the sun at dawn during a partial solar eclipse on Guadalmar beach in Malaga, Jan. 4. The partial eclipse will be visible near sunrise over most of Europe and northeastern Asia.

A partial solar eclipse is seen over a cross on a dome of the Alexander Nevski cathedral in Sofia, Jan. 4. The partial eclipse will be visible near sunrise over most of Europe and northeastern Asia.

In this picture taken through a double glazed window multiple reflections of a partial solar eclipse are seen in Stockholm, Jan. 4. Europe was given a front-row seat to the first solar eclipse of 2011 only to find that in many places a thick curtain of cloud marred the spectacle.

Venezuelan tourists watch a partial solar eclipse in front of the Giza Pyramids, Egypt, Jan. 4. A partial solar eclipse began Tuesday in the skies over the Mideast and will extend across much of Europe.

A view of a partial solar eclipse as seen from Gaza city, Jan. 4. A partial solar eclipse began Tuesday in the skies over the Mideast and will extend across much of Europe.

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