2012년 4월 9일 월요일

세계 제2차 대전 유명 사진: Pictures We Remember

No conflict in recorded history transformed the globe as thoroughly as World War II. Cities were obliterated; national borders altered; revolutionary and, in some cases, fearsome military, medical, communication and transportation technology invented; and , of course, tens of millions were killed — the majority of them civilians. Simply put, the world of August 1945, when the war ended, bore little resemblance to that of September 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. During those six long, uncertain years, LIFE covered the war with more tenacity and focus than any other magazine on earth. Twenty-one LIFE photographers logged 13,000 days outside the U.S.; half of that time was spent in combat zones. In tribute to those journalists, and to the men, women and even children who sacrificed so much in the Allied war effort, LIFE.com combed LIFE’s unparalleled archives for some of the greatest pictures made during WWII — often searing, occasionally lighthearted, always memorable images from the streets of Blitz-ravaged London to the sands and jungles of Saipan, Guadalcanal, and Iwo Jima. Seven decades have passed since the war ended, but the power of these pictures (several of which were never published in LIFE) has barely faded: confronting them today, we’re still dumbstruck by the destruction; we still flinch at the scale of the suffering; and we marvel at the courage of the men and women whose unity of purpose kept the flame of hope alive in the darkest of hours. Read more: http://life.time.com/history/wwii-the-pictures-we-remember/#ixzz1rZ4LGECQ

W. Eugene Smith—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
In a picture that captures the violence and sheer destruction inherent in war perhaps more graphically than any other ever published in LIFE, Marines take cover on an Iwo Jima hillside amid the burned-out remains of banyan jungle, as a Japanese bunker is obliterated in March 1945.

Alfred Eisenstaedt—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
In this and dozens of other, similar pictures made at New York's Penn Station in 1944, LIFE's Alfred Eisenstaedt captured a private moment repeated in public millions of times over the course of the war: a guy, a girl, a goodbye — and no assurance that he'll make it back. By war's end, more than 400,000 American troops had been killed.

William Vandiver—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
During 1940's Battle of Britain, Luftwaffe bombers tried to destroy British air power ahead of a planned invasion of the UK. When that failed, Hitler resorted to terror attacks on civilians, including the full-scale bombing of London (pictured) and other English towns. The attacks killed tens of thousands of Britons, but "The Blitz" fizzled: the invasion never materialized.

George Strock—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Three American soldiers lie half-buried in the sand at Buna Beach on New Guinea. This photo was taken in February 1943, but not published until September, when it became the first image of dead American troops to appear in LIFE during World War II. George Strock's photo was finally OK'd by government censors, in part because FDR feared the public was growing complacent about the war's horrific toll.

Andreas Feininger—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Te Statue of Liberty, photographed during a blackout in 1942 — an eloquent expression of the nation's mood in the first full year of a global conflict with no real end in sight.

Marie Hansen—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Members of the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps, commonly known as WAACs, don their first gas masks at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, in June 1942. The female troops were famously praised by General Douglas MacArthur, who called them "my best soldiers."

Hugo Jaeger—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
A photo taken by Hitler’s personal photographer (and later acquired by LIFE) shows a 1939 rally in which Hitler salutes Luftwaffe troops who fought with Francisco Franco's ultra-right wing nationalist rebels in the Spanish Civil War.

Hugo Jaeger—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Soldiers goose-step past the Führer in honor of Hitler's 50th birthday, April 20, 1939. Less than five months later, on September 1, the Third Reich's forces invaded Poland; on September 3, England and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War had begun

Hugo Jaeger—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Austrians cheer Adolf Hitler during his 1938 campaign to unite Austria and Germany. In the rapt faces, straining bodies, and adulation of the crowds swept up in Hitler's mad vision, one senses the eagerness of millions to forge a "Thousand Year Reich" at, literally, any cost.

W. Eugene Smith—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
In a photo that somehow comprises both tenderness and horror, an American Marine cradles a near-dead infant pulled from under a rock while troops cleared Japanese fighters and civilians from caves on Saipan in the summer of 1944. The child was the only person found alive among hundreds of corpses in one cave.

The home front: At Sportsman's Park in St. Louis, a visiting New York Giant is caught in a rundown in the summer of 1943. At a time when seemingly everything in America — race relations, gender roles, the country's very idea of itself — was undergoing profound change, the national pastime offered an antidote to anxiety and dread. Namely, something familiar. Something unchanging.

Gabriel Benzur—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Members of the U.S. Army Air Corps’ legendary 99th Pursuit Squadron, the Tuskegee Airmen, receive instruction about wind currents from a lieutenant in 1942. The Tuskegee fliers — the nation’s first African American air squadron — served with distinction in the segregated American military.

Bernard Hoffma—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
A welder at a boat-and-sub-building yard adjusts her goggles before resuming work, October, 1943. By 1945, women comprised well over a third of the civilian labor force (in 1940, it was closer to a quarter) and millions of those jobs were filled in factories: building bombers, manufacturing munitions, welding, drilling and riveting for the war effort.

Ralph Morse—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Army medic George Lott, wounded in both arms in November, 1944, grimaces as doctors mold a cast to his body. When Lott embarked on a 4,500-mile, seven-hospital journey of recovery, photographer Ralph Morse — astonished by the high level of medical care wounded troops received both at the front and behind the lines — traveled with him, and chronicled Lott's odyssey in a revelatory cover story for LIFE.

W. Eugene Smith—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Photographer W. Eugene Smith's picture of a Marine drinking from his canteen during 1944's Battle of Saipan is as iconic a war picture as any ever made. In fact, when the U.S. Postal Service released a "Masters of American Photography" series of commemorative stamps in 2002, Smith was included — and this image was chosen as representative of his body of work.

W. Eugene Smith—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. An exemplar of a bitter, grueling land battle, Iwo Jima also saw prodigious air and sea power brought to bear as American and Japanese troops clashed over control of the tiny Pacific island. American forces finally captured Iwo Jima — and its two strategic airfields — in late March, 1945.

Peter Stackpole—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. A crew maneuvers an enormous piece of artillery during the Battle of Saipan, 1944. In the waning days of the struggle for the island, thousands of Japanese civilians and troops committed suicide, rather than surrender to American troops. Many leapt to their death from the top of sheer cliffs that fall 200 feet to rocks and surf below.

W. Eugene Smith—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. American troops chat near a dead Japanese soldier on Iwo Jima. The degree to which the Japanese were willing to fight to the death, rather than surrender, is summed up in one remarkable statistic: Close to 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed during the battle; only around 200 were captured.

Frank Scherschel—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
GIs tramp in review across an English field, 1944, as the long-planned Operation Overlord — the D-Day invasion of France — draws near. With 160,000 Allied troops taking part, the cross-Channel attack was the single greatest air-land-and-sea invasion in military history.

Joe Scherschel—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. An American Marine readies to land on Guadalcanal during the five-month struggle for the island between late 1942 and early 1943. Three thousand miles south of Tokyo, Guadalcanal was a major shipping point for military supplies. The Allied victory there in February, 1943, marked a major turning point in the war after a string of Japanese victories in the Pacific.

Carl Mydans—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
American troops in the Philippines celebrate the long-awaited news that Japan has, finally, unconditionally, surrendered in August 1945.

Alfred Eisenstaedt—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Peace at last: V-J Day, Times Square, August 14, 1945

Inside Hitler's Bunker

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Oberwallstrasse, in central Berlin, which saw some of the most vicious fighting between German and Soviet troops in the spring of 1945.

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
This is a new view of a photograph that appeared, heavily cropped, in LIFE, picturing Hitler's command center in the bunker, partially burned by retreating German troops and stripped of valuables by invading Russians.

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. This Vandivert shot not only captures the chaotic state of Hitler's bunker, but also features an item that recalls the wanton gangsterism that characterized Nazi rule: a 16th-century painting looted from a museum in Milan. In the typed notes (see next slide) that Vandivert sent to LIFE's New York offices immediately after getting to Berlin, he described his intense, harried visit to the bunker: "Note and note well," he wrote. "These pix were made in the dark with only candle for illumination ... Our small party of four beat all rest of mob who came down about forty minutes after we got there."

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
This is the first of the 20 or so pages of notes that Vandivert typed up for LIFE's editors back in New York, describing not only the pictures that were taken on each roll of film, but also the mood and the atmosphere pervading his experience of examining Hitler's bunker and the Reich Chancellery grounds. (An example of Vandivert's terse, vivid notations: "... view of chancellery palace ... This is completely bombed, burned, and shelled to hell.")

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
With only candles to light their way, war correspondents examine a couch stained with blood (see dark patch on the arm of the sofa) located inside Hitler's bunker. In his typed notes Vandivert wrote: "Pix of [correspondents] looking at sofa where Hitler and Eva shot themselves. Note bloodstains on arm of soaf [sic] where Eva bled. She was seated at far end .... Hitler sat in middle and fell forward, did not bleed on sofa. This is in Hitler's sitting room." Remarkable stuff -- but, it turns out, only about half right. Historians are now quite certain that Braun actually committed suicide by biting a cyanide capsule, rather than by gunshot -- meaning that the blood stains on the couch might well be Hitler's, and not Eva Braun's, after all.

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. LIFE war correspondent Percy Knauth (left) sifts through dirt and debris in the shallow trench in the garden of the Reich Chancellery where the bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun are believed to have been burned after their suicides. Vandivert's typed notes around this scene include one of the more laconic of the photographer's sometimes-slangy observations of what he witnessed while exploring outside the bunker: "[S]hattered bird feeding box on tree trunk ... These bird feeding boxes are also seen all over the Berchtesgaden hangout [i.e., Hitler's mountaintop retreat in the Bavarian Alps]. Seems to have been a great thing with Hitler."

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. An SS officer's cap, with the infamous "death's head" skull emblem just barely visible. Of this image, Vandivert's notes state simply: "moldy SS cap lying in water on floor of sitting room."

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. Aerial view of bombed-out buildings and wrecked gasworks in and around the Schöneberg section of Berlin. Between August 1940 and March 1945, American, RAF, and Soviet bombers launched more than 350 air strikes on Berlin; tens of thousands of civilians were killed, and countless buildings -- apartment buildings, government offices, military installations -- were obliterated. Vandivert, LIFE reported, "found almost every famous building [in Berlin] a shambles. In the center of town GIs could walk for blocks and see no living thing, hear nothing but the stillness of death, smell nothing but the stench of death."

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. Above: An American soldier, PFC Douglas Page, offers a mocking Nazi salute inside the roofless, bombed-out ruins of the Berliner Sportspalast, or Sport Palace -- a venue where the Third Reich often held huge political rallies and where Hitler and others frequently speechified. Private Page is standing on the spot where Hitler usually stood while making speeches, before the building was destroyed during an Allied bombing raid on January 30, 1944.

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. Russian soldiers and an unidentified civilian struggle to move a large bronze Nazi Party eagle which once loomed over a doorway of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. A common practice of soldiers through the centuries: scrawling graffiti to honor fallen comrades, insult the vanquished, or simply announce, I was here. I survived. "Columns at entrance into Chancellery gardens," wrote Vandivert of this eerie scene, "showing bomb and artillery wreckage and names of Russians who fell in fighting there."

William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
Unpublished. An image almost too-perfectly symbolic of Berlin in the last weeks of April 1945: a crushed globe and a bust of Hitler lying amid rubble and debris outside the Reich Chancellery building.

Best World War II Photos

Best World War II Posters 1/3

Best World War Posters 2/3

Best World War Posters 3/3

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